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Test Case Design Techniques For High-Quality Test Suite


QA Testing is the most significant phase in the software development process. Not only does QA testing help to determine the product quality, but it also helps modify the product regarding end-user usability and friendliness. This article will address the fundamental notion of test case design techniques and their types. 

You can now learn various Manual Testing Techniques by joining online QA training or QA software testing training. It will help you reduce the number of test cases to be executed while enhancing the test coverage. Moreover, the training will help you identify various test conditions you may face difficulty in recognizing as a fresher.

But before diving deep into the test designing techniques with examples, what is test case in software testing, and test case writing examples, let’s first begin with the test design definition and techniques.

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Test Design Definition, Techniques And Importance

Test design is a process that describes “how” testing should be done. It includes processes for identifying test cases by enumerating steps of the defined test conditions.

  • Test design is the act of creating and writing test suites for testing software.
  • Test analysis and identifying test conditions give us a general idea for testing that covers a wide range of possibilities. But when making a test case, we need to be very specific. In fact, now we need the exact and detailed specific input. But just having some values to input to the system is not a test; if you don’t know what the system is supposed to do with the inputs, you cannot tell whether your test has passed or failed.

Let’s discuss the importance of test design techniques-

Test Design Techniques

Different types of software testing techniques help you design better test cases. There are many different types of software testing techniques, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Each technique is good at finding particular defects and relatively poor at finding others.

For example, since exhaustive testing is not possible, registering yourself for the QA testing courses will help you learn how to reduce the number of test cases to be executed while increasing test coverage. They help identify test conditions that are otherwise difficult to recognize.

Broadly speaking, there are two main categories of test design techniques. They are:

  1. Static Techniques
  2. Dynamic Techniques

Test Design Techniques

We’ll be broadly discussing DYNAMIC testing techniques; they’re as follows: 

  • Boundary Value Analysis (BVA)
  • Equivalence Class Partitioning
  • Decision Table based testing.
  • State Transition
  • Error Guessing

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Static Testing Techniques: Definition and Benefits

Static testing is a type among different software testing techniques that are performed to identify the errors in software without executing the code. This type of testing is generally performed at the initial stage of software development to avoid defects as it is easier to figure out the sources of failures and can be fixed quickly.  

static testing

Static Review

Static testing review is a technique performed to identify defects in software design. Under this process, errors are detected and defeated in different supporting docs. 

There are four types of review: 

  • Informal – The document creator puts the contents in front of the audience and lets people give their opinion. 
  • Walkthrough – Performed by experienced professionals to identify the defects if there is any possibility of problems. 
  • Peer Review – Checking documents to detect and fix errors. 
  • Inspection – The verification of the document 

Static Analysis 

The Static Analysis covers the evaluation of the code quality written by developers. Different tools are utilized in code analysis and comparison within the standard. 

It widely helps to find defects like – Dead code, Unused code, Wrong Syntax, Infinite loops, and variables with undefined values.

There are three types of Static Analysis: 

  • Data Flow: This is related to the stream processing
  • Control Flow: How the statements are executed. 
  • Cyclomatic Complexity: The measurement of the program's complexity related to the number of independent paths. 

Remember, to be a QA professional, you must brush up your skills in Manual Testing, Automation Testing, Performance testing, and much more.

Benefits of Static Testing Technique

Whenever software is tested, the software product will grow in size, which we can’t manage due to the depletion in the efficiency of code coverage.  As a result, software testers need static testing to eliminate bugs or flaws earlier in the STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle). there are some other key benefits of the static testing technique, which are as follows: 

  • Helps in identifying the flaws in code
  • The testing is conducted by trained software developers with good knowledge of coding
  • It is a fast and easy way to find and fix errors
  • With automated tools, it becomes quite fast to scan and review software
  • The use of Automated tools provides mitigation recommendations
  • With static testing, it is possible to find errors at an early stage of the development life cycle, thus, in turn, reducing the cost of fixing.

Dynamic Testing Techniques: Definition & Benefits

Dynamic testing is a type of software testing performed to analyze the dynamic behavior of the code. It includes software testing for the input and output values analyzed. Dynamic testing mainly refers to the observation of the physical response from the system. For dynamic testing, the software needs to be compiled and run.

dynamic testing

Now, we’ll broadly discuss 5 important DYNAMIC testing techniques below: 

  • Boundary Value Analysis (BVA),
  • Equivalence Class Partitioning,
  • Decision Table-based testing,
  • State Transition,
  • Error Guessing.

1.Boundary Value Analysis (BVA)

Boundary value analysis (BVA), test case design techniques is based on testing the boundary values of valid and invalid partitions. It includes maximum, minimum, inside or outside boundaries, and typical and error values.

The Behavior at the edge of each equivalence partition is more likely to be incorrect than the behavior within the partition, so boundaries are an area where testing is likely to yield defects. It is also known as BVA and gives a selection of test cases that exercise bounding values.

This comes under the black-box testing technique. Thus, if a system works well for these particular values, it will work perfectly well for all values between the two boundary values. To enhance and keep up the quality of the application, learn the difference between black box testing vs white box testing

Guidelines for Boundary Value Analysis

  • If an input condition is restricted between values x and y, then the test cases should be designed with values x and y and values above and below x and y.
  • If an input condition is a large number of values, the test case should be developed, which must exercise the minimum and maximum numbers. Here, values above and below the minimum and maximum values are also tested.


Boundary value analysis

2. Equivalence Class Partitioning

In this test case design techniques, the input domain data is divided into different equivalence data classes. This method typically reduces the total number of test cases to a finite set of testable test cases, still covering maximum requirements.

The concept behind this technique is that the test case of a representative value of each class is equal to a test of any other value of the same class. It allows you to Identify valid as well as invalid equivalence classes.


Input conditions are valid between

equivalence class partitioning

3. Decision Table Based Testing.

A decision table is a good way to deal with different combination inputs with their associated outputs. It is a black box test design technique to determine the test scenarios for complex business logic.

It is also known as to Cause-Effect table because of an associated logical diagramming technique called cause-effect graphing that is used to derive the decision table. This software testing technique is used for testing the system behaviour for different input combinations.

The first task is to identify functionalities where the output depends on a combination of inputs. If there are large input set of combinations, then divide it into smaller subsets which are helpful for managing a decision table.

For every function, you need to create a table and list down all types of combinations of inputs and its respective outputs. This helps to identify a condition that is overlooked by the tester.

Example: The condition states that if the user provides the correct username and password the user will be redirected to the homepage. If any of the input is wrong, an error message will be displayed.

decision table based testing

In the above example,

  • T – Correct username/password
  • F – Wrong username/password
  • E – Error message is displayed
  • H – Home screen is displayed

4. State Transition

State Transition Testing is a black-box testing technique that is carried out to observe the system's behavior or application for different input conditions passed in a sequence. In this type of testing, both positive and negative input values are provided, and the system's behavior is observed. In-State transition technique, the testing team provides positive and negative input test values for evaluating the system behavior.


In the following state transition diagram, if a user enters a valid password in any of the first three attempts, the user will be able to log in successfully. If the user enters the invalid password on the first or second try, the user will be prompted to re-enter the password. When the user enters the password incorrectly 3rd time, the action has been taken, and the account will be blocked.

State transition diagram

In the above diagram, when the user gives the correct PIN number, he or she is moved to the Access granted state. 

In the above example, the state transitions to “Access Granted” when the user enters the correct PIN. And if the user enters an incorrect password, he or she is moved to the next state. If the user does the same 3rd time, he’ll reach the account blocked state.

5. Error Guessing

Is a dynamic test case design technique that depends on speculating the mistake which can win in the code. It is an encounter-based system where the test expert uses his/her experience to figure out the problematic piece of the testing application.

The technique counts a list of possible errors or error-prone situations. At that point, the tester composes an experiment to expose those errors. To design test cases or test case design strategies based on this test design technique, the analyst can use past experiences to identify the conditions.

Test Design Tools

Test design tools help to run test cases or, if nothing else, test inputs (which is a piece of a test case). 

For example, suppose the requirements are kept in a test management tool, or a Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool developers use. In that case, generating input fields, including the range of valid values, is possible. This range of information can be used to make out boundary values and equivalence partitions. If the valid range is stored, the tool can distinguish between values that should be accepted and those that should not be accepted, generating an error message. The expected result can be checked in detail if the error messages are stored. If the expected result of the input of a vThe state transitions to “Access Granted” in the above example did in the test case constructed by the test design tool.

Benefits of Dynamic Testing Technique

As you can see, dynamic testing is one of the important software testing techniques used to examine the behavior of software code. The aim of this testing technique is to test the behavior of software using dynamic variables or variables that aren’t constant and identify weak areas in the software runtime system. In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of the software, it's important to execute the code. The dynamic testing technique provides the following benefits - 

  • Dynamic testing could identify the weak areas in the runtime environment.
  • Dynamic testing supports applications the tester does not have an actual code.
  • Dynamic testing could identify some vulnerabilities that are difficult to find, and run trun test cases or, if nothing else, test inputs (tatic testing results.
  • Dynamic testing could be applied to any application.


In the bottom line, QA testing is vital; it takes the form of business requirement reviews, design reviews, functional reviews, test documentation reviews, design reviews, and code walkthroughs. While the dynamic testing part is more hands-on, it generally happens on the product itself and not on a representation or artifact of the product. A much more formal test case/condition identification process, execution, coverage considerations, and defect reporting represent dynamic testing techniques. This is how dynamic and static testing is different…

Hopefully, you found the blog helpful in understanding the basics of what is QA testing, dynamic and static testing, their testing techniques, and how they are different and test design techniques, and what is test cases in software testing  with examples. Software testing has entered as a good career option with lucrative QA testing salary packages. 

If you are willing to enter a software testing career, it's recommended to opt professional online QA training course and start your QA journey for a successful career. If you want to explore more about the QA testing career path and respective training, feel free to reach us.

If you have any doubts or questions, feel free to comment below. Preparing yourself for your dream testing job? check QA testing interview questions and answers


Q1) What are the types of test case design techniques?

Ans:-  Here are a few types of testing techniques:

  • Functionality test cases
  • User interface test cases
  • Security test cases
  • Performance test cases
  • Database test cases
  • Usability test cases
  • Unit test cases
  • Integration test cases

Q2) What is test cases in software testing?

Ans:-  The test case design is referred setting up your test cases. Designing your tests correctly is important, or you could fail to find bugs in your software during testing.

Q3) What is test design techniques? 

Ans:-  The test case design technique helps to organize test data into groups, ensuring each member generates the same results. In case one test of the group fails, all the others also fail. Hope you got your answers for what is test design technique.

Q4) What are the latest trends in software testing techniques? 

Ans:-  Here are some of the best test design trends which need to be followed in 2023.

  • Blockchain
  • Big Data
  • Performance Engineering
  • Cybersecurity
  • IaC
  • Chatbots
  • Test Automation in Agile Model
  • Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence Test Automation

Q5) Is the QA career path profitable today?

Ans:-  A career in software testing techniques is well-paid and comes up with great career opportunities.  In addition, the training is affordable and accessible at any time. If you are unsure, check the QA software tester career path

Q6) What is a QA tester's Salary? 

Ans:-  The average salary for a QA Tester in the US is $62,367.

Q7) what is a manual tester’s salary?

Ans:-  As of May 11, 2023, the manual tester's salary in the United States is $79,731 a year.

Q8) what skills will I master through your QA analyst training online program?

Ans:-  You’ll skill up in the following fields through our software QA testing training -

  • Java
  • Agile
  • API Testing
  • JDBC
  • TDD
  • AWS

Q9) What is the eligibility for enrolling in QA analyst training?

Ans:-  To enroll in the QA analyst training online program, the candidate must have a bachelor’s degree or an equivalent degree. They should have basic knowledge of software testing, STLC, SDLC, etc. 

Q10) what are the top QA testing specializations?

Ans:-  Selecting the right specialization can help you define and shape your future career as a software tester, manual tester, automation tester, software testing engineer, etc. We’ve listed the top QA testing specializations to help you earn the desired specialty. 

  • QA Manual Tester
  • QA Analyst
  • QA Engineer
  • Test Analyst
  • QA tester
  • Test Engineer
  • Automation Tester
  • Test Architect

Are you looking to make your career in software testing? Take your initial step with the QA Training. 

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