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Junit Testing Tutorial For Beginners

Introduction

All of you know What is QA testing? QA testing, or Quality Assurance testing, is the process of making sure that the products you’re offering to your customers are of the highest possible quality. These techniques are used to prevent various issues with your software products or services. QA testing ensures excellent UX for your customers.

QA Testers are essential in the software development life cycle since they are responsible for testing, tuning, debugging, and suggesting detailed enhancements that guarantee the finished product's playability and quality. Today there are top 5,000+ Qa Tester jobs in the United States. Hence you should grasp this opportunity by enhancing your QA skills. Join QA online courses to master the software testing skills and be job ready! JanBask Training offers Online Certification Courses for Quality Assurance that helps in expanding your QA testing skills. 

This tutorial will help the software testing aspirants with the usage of JUnit in unit testing while working with Java. The tutorial is designed for beginners to help them understand the basic functionality of JUnit.

What is JUnit?

It is a unit testing framework for the Java programming language. JUnit has been crucial in the development of test-driven development and is one of a family of unit testing frameworks. The primary usage of JUnit is to write repeatable tests for your application code units. JUnit stimulates the idea of “testing first, then coding,” which accentuates on setting up of the test data for the code snippets that can be tested first and then implemented. The test approach explicates –

test a little + code a little = JUnit

JUnit increases the productivity of a programmer and the stability of the program’s code snippets, which reduces the time of the tester, which is spent on debugging of the code.

Features of JUnit

  • It is an open-source framework that is used for writing and running tests
  • It provides annotations to identify test methods
  • It provides assertions for testing the expected results
  • It provides test runners to run tests
  • It allows the tester to write code faster which increases the quality
  • These tests are run automatically, check their results, and provide immediate feedback
  • These show test progress in a green color bar if the test is running smoothly, and it turns red if the test fails

How to Download and Install JUnit

Local Environment Setup

JUnit is a framework for Java, so the very first requirement is to have JDK installed on your machine.

System Requirements

JDK

  1.5 or above.

Memory

  No minimum requirement.

Disk Space

  No minimum requirement.

Operating System

  No minimum requirement.

Step 1: Verify Java Installation in Your Machine

First of all, open the console and execute a java command based on the operating system you are working on.

OS

Task

Command

Windows

Open Command Console

c:\> java -version

Linux

Open Command Terminal

$ java -version

Mac

Open Terminal

machine:~ joseph$ java -version

Let's verify the output for all the operating systems −

OS

Output

Windows

java version "1.8.0_101"

Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_101)

Linux

java version "1.8.0_101"

Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_101)

Mac

java version "1.8.0_101"

Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_101)

If you do not have Java installed on your system, then download the Java Software Development Kit (SDK) from the following link https://www.oracle.com. We are assuming Java 1.8.0_101 as the installed version for this tutorial.

Step 2: Set JAVA Environment

Set the JAVA_HOME environment variable to point to the base directory location where Java is installed on your machine. For example-

OS

Output

Windows

Set the environment variable JAVA_HOME to C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_101

Linux

export JAVA_HOME = /usr/local/java-current

Mac

export JAVA_HOME = /Library/Java/Home

Append Java compiler location to the System Path.

OS

Output

Windows

Append the string C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_101\binat the end of the system variable, Path.

Linux

export PATH = $PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin/

Mac

not required

Verify Java installation using the command java -version as explained above.

Step 3: Download the JUnit Archive

Download the latest version of the JUnit jar file from http://www.JUnit.org. At the time of writing this tutorial, we downloaded JUnit-4.12.jar and copied it into C:\>JUnit folder.

OS

Archive-name

Windows

JUnit4.12.jar

Linux

JUnit4.12.jar

Mac

JUnit4.12.jar

Step 4: Set JUnit Environment

Set the JUNIT_HOME environment variable to point to the base directory location where the JUNIT jar is stored on your machine. Let’s assume we've stored JUnit4.12.jar in the JUNIT folder.

Sr. No

OS & Description

1

Windows

Set the environment variable JUNIT_HOME to C:\JUNIT

2

Linux

export JUNIT_HOME = /usr/local/JUNIT

3

Mac

export JUNIT_HOME = /Library/JUNIT

Step 5: Set CLASSPATH Variable

Set the CLASSPATH environment variable to point to the JUNIT jar location.

Sr.No. 

OS & Description

1

Windows

Set the environment variable CLASSPATH to %CLASSPATH%;%JUNIT_HOME%\JUnit4.12.jar;.;

2

Linux

export CLASSPATH = $CLASSPATH:$JUNIT_HOME/JUnit4.12.jar:.

3

Mac

export CLASSPATH = $CLASSPATH:$JUNIT_HOME/JUnit4.12.jar:.

Step 6: Test JUnit Setup

Create a java class file name TestJUnit in C:\>JUNIT_WORKSPACE

import org.JUnit.Test;

import static org.JUnit.Assert.assertEquals;

 

public class TestJUnit {

   @Test

 

   public void testAdd() {

      String str = "JUnit is working fine";

      assertEquals("JUnit is working fine",str);

   }

}

Create a java class file name TestRunner in C:\>JUNIT_WORKSPACE to execute test case(s).

import org.JUnit.runner.JUnitCore;

import org.JUnit.runner.Result;

import org.JUnit.runner.notification.Failure;

 

public class TestRunner {

   public static void main(String[] args) {

      Result result = JUnitCore.runClasses(TestJUnit.class);

 

      for (Failure failure : result.getFailures()) {

         System.out.println(failure.toString());

      }

 

      System.out.println(result.wasSuccessful());

   }

Step 7: Verify the Result

Compile the classes using javac compiler as follows −

C:\JUNIT_WORKSPACE>javac TestJUnit.java TestRunner.java

Now run the Test Runner to see the result as follows −

C:\JUNIT_WORKSPACE>java TestRunner

Verify the output.

true

To include JUnit into your project, you need to include its dependency into the classpath.

  • JUnit Maven Dependency

    JUnit

    JUnit

    4.12

  • JUnit Gradle Dependency

dependencies {

  testCompile 'JUnit:JUnit:4.12'

}

  • JUnit Jar File

Click the link to download the JUnit 4.12 jar file.

JUnit Test Framework

JUnit is a Regression testing framework that is used by developers to implement unit testing in Java to escalate the speed of programming and elevate the quality of code. The JUnit framework also allows quick and easy generation of test data and test cases.

The JUnit test framework provides the following important features:-

  • Test Fixtures
  • Test Suites
  • Test Runners
  • JUnit Classes

Test Fixtures

A fixture is a fixed state of a set of objects which is used as a baseline for running the test cases. The primary purpose of a test fixture is to fortify that there is a well-known and fixed environment in which tests are run so that results are in repeated manner.

  • setUp() method runs before every test invocation. The annotation @Before is used
  • tearDown() method and runs after every test method. The annotation @After is used

The below code will execute two test cases on a simple file.

public class TestCaseFile

{

private File output;

output = new File(...);

output.delete();

public void testFile1()

{

//Code to verify Test Case 1

}

output.delete();

output = new File(...);

public void testFile2()

{

//Code to verify Test Case 2

}

output.delete();

}

There are few issues in the above code-

  • The code is not readable
  • The code is not easy to maintain
  • When the test suite will be complex, the code will contain logical issues

Let’s compare the same code using JUnit-

public class TestCaseFile

{

private File output;

@Before public void createOutputFile()

{

output = new File(...);

}

@After public void deleteOutputFile()

{

output.delete();

}

@Test public void testFile1()

{

// code for test case objective

}

@Test public void testFile2()

{

// code for test case objective

}

}

The code is now readable and maintainable. The above code structure is Text fixture.

Test Suites

To execute multiple test cases in a specific order, it is done by combining all the test cases in a single origin. The origin is known as test suites.

To run the test suite, you need to annotate a class using the annotations mentioned below-

  • @Runwith(Suite.class)
  • @SuiteClassses(test1.class,test2.class……) or @SuiteClasses({test1.class,test2.class})

Below example will run the TestJUnit1.class and TestJUnit2.class

import org.JUnit.runner.RunWith;

import org.JUnit.runners.Suite;

//JUnit Suite Test

@RunWith(Suite.class)

@Suite.SuiteClasses({ 

   TestJUnit1.class ,TestJUnit2.class

}) 

public class JUnitTestSuite {

}

Test Runners

The Test Runner is used to execute the test cases. Let’s take an assumption of the test cases class TestJUnit.

import org.JUnit.runner.JUnitCore;

import org.JUnit.runner.Result;

import org.JUnit.runner.notification.Failure; 

public class TestRunner {

   public static void main(String[] args) {

      Result result = JUnitCore.runClasses(TestJUnit.class);

      for (Failure failure : result.getFailures()) {

         System.out.println(failure.toString());

      }

      System.out.println(result.wasSuccessful());

   }

}

JUnit Classes

There are important classes which are used in writing and testing JUnits. Some of them are-

  • Assert: It contains a set of assert methods
  • TestCase: It contains a test case that defines the fixture to run multiple tests
  • TestResult: It contains methods to collect the results of executing a test case

JUnit Annotations & API

An annotation is a special form of meta-data in a syntactical manner that can be added to Java source code for the better readability and structure. Variables, parameters, packages, methods, and classes can be annotated. JUnit offers the following annotations to write tests:

ANNOTATION

DESCRIPTION

@Before

The annotated method will be run before each test method in the test class.

@After

The annotated method will be run after each test method in the test class.

@BeforeClass

The annotated method will be run before all test methods in the test class. This method must be static.

@AfterClass

The annotated method will be run after all test methods in the test class. This method must be static.

@Test

It is used to mark a method as a JUnit test

@Ignore

It is used to disable or ignore a test class or method from a test suite.

@FixMethodOrder

This class allows the user to choose the order of execution of the methods within a test class.

@Rule

Annotates fields that reference rules or methods that return a rule.

@ClassRule

Annotates static fields that reference rules or methods that return them.

Following is the execution order of the above-mentioned methods when a JUnit4 test is run: -

  1. A method annotated with @BeforeClass
  2. A method annotated with @Before
  3. A first method annotated with @Test, i.e., test1().
  4. A method annotated with @After
  5. A method annotated with @Before
  6. A second method annotated with @Test, i.e., test2().
  7. A method annotated with @After
  8. A method annotated with @AfterClass

JUnit Parameterized Test

JUnit Parameterized test was the new feature that was introduced in JUnit 4. This allows the developer to run the same test, again using different values. A total of five steps are followed to create a parameterized test: -

  • Annotate test class with @RunWith(Parameterized.class).
  • Create a public static method annotated with @Parameters that returns a Collection of Objects (as Array) as test data set.
  • Create a public constructor that takes in what is equivalent to one "row" of test data.
  • Create an instance variable for each "column" of test data.
  • Create your test case(s) using the instance variables as the source of the test data.

Let’s look into an example.

import java.util.Arrays;

import java.util.Collection;

import org.JUnit.Test;

import org.JUnit.Before;

import org.JUnit.runners.Parameterized;

import org.JUnit.runners.Parameterized.Parameters;

import org.JUnit.runner.RunWith;

import static org.JUnit.Assert.assertEquals;

@RunWith(Parameterized.class)

public class PrimeNumber

{

private Integer i;

private Boolean expectedResult;

private PrimeNumberChecker primeNumberChecker;

@Before public void initialize()

{

primeNumberChecker = new PrimeNumberChecker();

}

// Each parameter should be placed as an argument here

// Every time runner triggers, it will pass the arguments

// from parameters we defined in primeNumbers() method

public PrimeNumberCheckerTest(Integer i, Boolean expectedResult)

{

this.i= i;

this.expectedResult = expectedResult;

}

@Parameterized.Parameters

public static Collection primeNumbers()

{

return Arrays.asList(new Object[][]

{

{ 2, true },

{ 6, false },

{ 19, true },

{ 22, false },

{ 23, true }

}

);

}

// This test will run 4 times since we have 5 parameters defined

@Test public void PrimeNumberCheckerTest()

{

System.out.println("Parameterized Number is : " + i);

assertEquals(expectedResult, primeNumberChecker.validate(i));

}

}

 

Create another class TestRunner to compile the program.

import org.JUnit.runner.JUnitCore;

import org.JUnit.runner.Result;

import org.JUnit.runner.notification.Failure;

public class Runner

{

public static void main(String[] args)

{

Result result = JUnitCore.runClasses(PrimeNumberCheckerTest.class);

for (Failure failure : result.getFailures())

{

System.out.println(failure.toString());

}

System.out.println(result.wasSuccessful());

}

}

 

Output 

Parameterized Number is: 2
Parameterized Number is : 6
Parameterized Number is : 19
Parameterized Number is : 22
Parameterized Number is : 23
true

JUnit ErrorCollector

Normally when you identify an error during execution of the test, you would stop the test, fix the error, and re-run the test. But in the case of JUnit, you can continue with the test execution even when you find an issue or the test fails. ErrorCollector collects all error objects and reports them only once after the test execution is over.

While writing a test script, if you want to execute all the tests even if any line of code fails due to any network failure or any other reason, in that situation, you can continue executing the test script by using a special feature provided by JUnit, which is called ‘error collector.’

JUnit uses @Rule annotation, which is used to create an object of error collector. Once the object is created, you can easily add all the errors into the object using the method addError (Throwable error). Throwable is a superclass of Exception and Error class in Java. When errors are added in this way, these errors will be logged in a JUnit test result.

The major benefit of adding all the errors in an ErrorCollector is that you can verify all the errors at once. And, if the script fails in the middle, it can continue executing it. But yes, it is important to note here that in the case of a try/catch block, using ErrorCollector won’t be possible.

JUnit Exception Test

JUnit provides the exception handling of code. You can test whether the code throws a desired exception or not. There are three different ways to test that a method would throw the expected exception:-

1. Set the expected parameter @Test(expected = FileNotFoundException.class).

@Test(expected = FileNotFoundException.class) 

    public void testReadFile() throws IOException { 

        FileReader reader = new FileReader("test.txt");

        reader.read();

        reader.close();

    }

2. Using try-catch

@Test

    public void testReadFile2() { 

        try {

            FileReader reader = new FileReader("test.txt");

            reader.read();

            reader.close();

            fail("Expected an IOException to be thrown");

        } catch (IOException e) {

            assertThat(e.getMessage(), is("test.txt (No such file or directory)"));

        }                 

    }

3. Testing with ExpectedException Rule.

@Rule

    public ExpectedException thrown = ExpectedException.none();

@Test

    public void testReadFile3() throws IOException {                

        thrown.expect(IOException.class);

        thrown.expectMessage(startsWith("test.txt (No such file or directory)"));

 FileReader reader = new FileReader("test.txt");

        reader.read();

        reader.close();

    }

JUnit Ignore Test

In case of the failure of the test case, the @Ignore annotation helps. A test method annotated with @Ignore will not be executed. Also, if a test class is annotated with @Ignore, then none of its test methods will be executed.

Let’s see the JUnit Ignore test into an action-

package com.mkyong;

import org.JUnit.Ignore;

import org.JUnit.Test;

 

import static org.hamcrest.CoreMatchers.is;

import static org.JUnit.Assert.assertThat;

 

public class IgnoreTest {

 

    @Test

    public void testMath1() {

        assertThat(1 + 1, is(2));

    }

 

    @Ignore

    @Test

    public void testMath2() {

        assertThat(1 + 2, is(5));

    }

 

    @Ignore("some one please create a test for Math3!")

    @Test

    public void testMath3() {

        //...

    }

 

}

In the above code snippet, both testMath()2 and testMath3() will be ignored.

Writing Tests in JUnit

In JUnit, test methods are marked with @Test annotation. To run the method, JUnit first constructs a fresh instance of the class and then invokes the annotated method. JUnit will report any exceptions thrown by the test as a failure. If no exceptions are thrown, the test is assumed to have succeeded.

import java.util.ArrayList;

 

import org.JUnit.After;

import org.JUnit.AfterClass;

import org.JUnit.Before;

import org.JUnit.BeforeClass;

import org.JUnit.Test;

 

public class Example {

    @BeforeClass

    public static void setup() {

    }

 

    @Before

    public void setupThis() {

    }

 

    @Test

    public void method() {

        org.JUnit.Assert.assertTrue(new ArrayList().isEmpty());

    }

 

    @After

    public void tearThis() {

    }

 

    @AfterClass

    public static void tear() {

    }

}

JUnit Test Suites

Using JUnit test suites, you can run tests spread into multiple test classes. In JUnit, both @RunWith and @Suite annotations are used to run the suite tests.

import org.JUnit.runner.RunWith;

import org.JUnit.runners.Suite;

 

@RunWith(Suite.class)

 

@Suite.SuiteClasses({

   TestJUnit1.class,

   TestJUnit2.class

})

 

public class JUnitTestSuite {  

JUnit Assertions

Assertions help in validating the expected output with the actual output of a test case. All the assertions are in the org.JUnit.Assert class. All assert methods are static, it enables better readable code. JUnit 4 has a set of following assertions: -

  • org.JUnit.Assert.assertArrayEquals
  • org.JUnit.Assert.assertEquals
  • org.JUnit.Assert.assertFalse
  • org.JUnit.Assert.assertNotNull
  • org.JUnit.Assert.assertNotSame
  • org.JUnit.Assert.assertNull
  • org.JUnit.Assert.assertSame
  • org.JUnit.Assert.assertTrue
the org.JUnit.Assert.assertThat method (available in JUnit4) which uses matchers and is better than old style assertions because it provides:
  • Better readability

    • assertThat(actual, is(equalTo(expected))); is better than assertEquals(expected, actual);
    • assertThat(actual, is(not(equalTo(expected)))); is better than assertFalse(expected.equals(actual));
  • Better failure messages

    • java.lang.AssertionError: Expected: is "hello" but: was "hello world" is better than org.JUnit.ComparisonFailure: expected: but was:
  • Flexibility

    • Multiple conditions could be asserted using matchers like anyOf or allOf.

import static org.JUnit.Assert.*;

 

@Test

public void method() {

    assertTrue(new ArrayList().isEmpty());

}

JUnit Assumptions

Assumptions indicate the conditions in which a test is meaningful. A failed assumption does not mean the code is broken but that the test provides no useful information. Assumptions basically mean “don’t run this test if these conditions don’t apply.” The default JUnit runner skips tests with failing assumptions.

import org.JUnit.Test;

import static org.JUnit.Assume.*;

 

 

public class Example {

    public class AppTest {

        @Test

        void testOnDev()

        {

            System.setProperty("ENV", "DEV");

            assumeTrue("DEV".equals(System.getProperty("ENV")));

        }

          

        @Test

        void testOnProd()

        {

            System.setProperty("ENV", "PROD");

            assumeFalse("DEV".equals(System.getProperty("ENV"))); 

        }

    }

}

Summary

JUnit is a unit testing framework for Java programming language. With this tutorial, you might have understood the basics of JUnit and How to Download and Install JUnit, JUnit Test Framework, JUnit Annotations & API, JUnit Parameterized Test, JUnit ErrorCollector, JUnit Exception Test, JUnit Ignore Test, Writing Tests in JUnit, JUnit Test Suites, JUnit Assertions, JUnit Assumptions and scaled your unit testing practice like a pro. If not done yet, talk to our counselors at JanBask Training to learn more about QA Testing. Join our Online Certification Courses for Quality Assurance, which will help you broaden your knowledge based on QA techniques and improve your Software QA Tester resume. In order to meet QA experts who can help you improve your testing skills, join our QA Testing Community & Forum

Happy Testing! 

FAQs

Q1. Why join JanBask Training for Online QA Certification Courses?

Ans. Because our Online QA Certification Courses will help you learn different techniques for performing software testing in a more effective way by getting equipped with project-based work scenarios. You’ll  also get acquainted with the practical knowledge of experienced QA professionals. You’ll get world-class infrastructure, one on one industry experts, and a salary hike. 

Q2. What is the importance of doing Software Testing certification courses?

Ans. Since the demand for Software Testing is expected to grow at a minimum of 6% by 2026, and there around 13,000 Software Testing job openings are available for QA professionals. In the US, the average income of Software Testers is US$63,070 per year and around ₹370,000 per year in India. 

Q3. What are the benefits of Online QA Certification Courses?

Ans. Online QA Certification Courses allow you to learn the techniques of performing software testing in a more effective way by getting equipped with project-based work scenarios. These courses also let you get acquainted with practical knowledge from experienced QA professionals.

Q4. Why offline QA Certification Courses are not considered the best?

Ans. Offline QA Certification Courses aren’t flexible enough like Online QA Certification Courses and they also have longer schedules which affects the planning proposition of professionals as well as the students. This mode of learning is expensive and results in to unplanned utilization of time and resources. Students and professionals might miss out on life-long accessibility to study material, projects, and presentations that are available in online classes. There might be a communication barrier between the instructor and the students.

Q5. How do Quality Assurance Online Courses fills the huge Gap in QA Career Development?

Ans. Our Online QA Certification Courses have a unique curriculum that gives a glimpse of trending methodologies of software testing. Our classes are highly interactive which will not just make you a software tester but also provide you with overall technical expertise in Quality Assurance and make you an expert in this field with hands-on experience.

Q6. What are the eligibility criteria for your Online QA Certification Courses?

Ans. For admission to the Online QA Certification Courses, candidates must have a bachelor’s degree or an equivalent degree and fundamental knowledge of Software Testing, SDLC, and STLC.

Q7. What is the process of Online QA Certification Courses at JanBask Training?

Ans. You have to register, fill up, Pay and submit the application form for online QA Certification Courses and also furnish proof of your academic qualifications & work experience.

Q8. Give an overview of JanBask Training’s QA Testing Professional Entrance Exams.

Ans. The JankBask Training’s QA Certification Professional Entrance Exam is a computer-based test (CBT) that evaluates a candidate's ability to perform software testing with the required skills of an IT professional. The exam focuses on the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job duties of an IT professional in a specific organization. 

Q9. What are the benefits of the QA Testing Entrance Exam?

Ans. The primary benefit of the QA Testing Entrance Exam is to earn better job opportunities and to work in exceptional teams across big organizations. For that, one needs to be clear of the certification exam because without qualifying for the entrance, the chances of job opportunities will be limited.

Q10. What are the Top QA Specializations offered at JanBask Training?

Ans. We've rounded up top-quality assurance online courses that are sure to help you land your desired specialty like - 

  • Automation Tester
  • Test Engineer,
  • QA Tester,
  • Test Analyst,
  • QA Engineer,
  • QA analyst,
  • QA Manual Tester, and
  • Test Architect


     user

    Divya Agarwal

    Divya Agarwal is a voracious reader who loves reading any kind of write ups, traveling and photography. She has been writing for IT professionals for many years now making sure they get the desired information in the most lucid form.


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