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QA engineer is the person who spends more time in the testing industry and creates a roadmap and strategies for testing professionals. This is always an added benefit to having the relevant industry experience and project exposure too.
If you are done with QA training and preparing for interviews, here are the best QA questions and answers that are frequently asked by interviewers. We have segregated the QA question based on the career level- freshers, intermediates, and advanced workforce.
These QA testing interview questions focus more on the quality process and the strategy. They are more related to projects where we define strategies for tough business processes. This QA interview questions and answers guide is prepared under the guidance of industry experts who have performed very well in their domain.
Are you ready to crack the interview in your first attempt only, lets's get started !!
1). How can you differentiate the three related terms quality assurance, quality control, and the testing?
Ans:- Quality assurance is the process of defining quality standards for the project. Quality control is the process to find the defects and suggest necessary improvements for the same. Testing is the process of finding the defects and reporting the bugs to the developers.
2). What is the right time to start with QA activities?
Ans:- Well, QA activities should start from the beginning of a project. The early QA activities generally help to control the overall project costs and sets quality standards for the project. The costs, time management, and efforts are very difficult to manage once QA activities are delayed.
3). Give a quick review of the software testing life cycle?
Ans:- This is a step-by-step testing process that should be executed in a defined order to make sure that the testing goals are achieved. There are multiple types of software testing life cycle models that can be used based on your project needs and requirements.
4). How are test pan and test strategies both different from each other?
Ans:- Test strategy is usually defined as the project manager, where the complete approach to testing is given in detail. At the same time, the test plan will demonstrate the testing process for a particular application or module under a project.
5). What are the steps involved when writing a test case?
Ans:- A test case should have the following details – Test Case ID, what is the description, severity, define priority, environment, version of the build, steps to execute, expected result, and the actual result.
6). How will you check whether a test case is good or bad?
Ans:- If there is a test case that finds all the defects within an application, then it is good; otherwise, it will be bad. Also, a good test case is designed based on standard guidelines and easy to read.
7). How can you execute a large suite of test cases in a short period?
Ans:- If you wanted to execute a large set of test cases together, then you should set the priorities and execute the high priority test cases in the beginning, then you may start with the low priority test cases. The process makes sure that the most important modules of a project are tested already. Alternatively, you may also focus on customer preferences and prioritize the test cases accordingly.
8). Do production issues can also be solved with the help of a QA expert?
Ans:- Obviously! This would be an amazing learning curve for the QA experts, and they are highly in demand if they can manage the production issues too. They add some extra features in test cases, and production issues are managed automatically when the test engineer executes test cases.
9). If there is one bug identified in the application and fixed by the development team, then how can you make sure that the same bug will not be introduced again?
Ans:- The best solution to the problem is to write a test case and include the same in the regression suite. It will make sure that a particular bug is not introduced again. Also, you could think of alternative test cases that are considered as part of the planned execution.
10). How function and non-functional testing is different from each other?
Ans:- As the name suggests, Functional Testing is usually related to the functionality of an application. This particular technique makes sure that the product has been designed based on customer needs and specifications. The modules are tested and validated against customer specifications and marked as pass or fail accordingly. Regression, performance, and smoke are the different types of functional testing.
The other popular technique is non-functional testing that will check the non-functional parts of an application. It will check the performance, stress, or load for an application. This technique is usually defined explicitly, and testers make sure that sufficient time is given to check the different non-functional aspects of an application.
Read more on QA software tester career path.
11). How can you define the positive and negative testing for a project?
Ans:- Negative testing will check whether the system behaves gracefully even when non-valid inputs are given. At the same time, positive testing will check whether the system behaves as per the expectations or not for the valid inputs.
12). How will you be sure that testing is complete for a project?
Ans:- There are two popular techniques requiring traceability and the coverage matrices to check either testing is complete for a projector still need to perform.
13). Are there any technical requirements to consider when writing test cases?
Ans:- There are plenty of technical requirements to consider when writing a test case like functional specifications, user requirements, wireframes, user stories, acceptance criteria, or UAT test cases, etc.
14). Can you write a test case without proper documentation?
Ans:- Yes, this is possible to write a test case even in the absence of concrete documents. In this case, you have to be more conscious and collaborate with BA team continuously. Also, sit with the developers and try to understand the project requirements deeply. Based on the discussion, you can define the test conditions yourself and design the test case without any concrete documents.
15). How will you define the verification and validation in testing?
Ans:- Verification is the process of checking the progress of a project to make sure that you are on the right track or not. Validation is the process of evaluating the final output of the project to make sure that it perfectly meets the client's needs and requirements.
16). Are Verification techniques static or dynamic in nature? Name a few techniques that you have used for your past projects?
Ans:- Verification techniques are static in nature. A few verification techniques that I have used for my past projects are – the walkthrough verification technique, Review, and Inspection.
17). How can you define the load testing and stress testing for a project?
Ans:- Load testing will check the system performance under heavy loads. On the other hand, stress testing will test the system behavior when test cases are executed under stress.
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18). Have you used any automation tools for your past projects?
Ans:- Yes, of course. The answer to this question is exclusive to the individual and depends on the experience of a candidate.
19). How to clear the doubts related to project specifications?
Ans:- For this purpose, you should check the technical specifications for a test case. If you still have any doubts, then ask your senior team members.
20). Can you define the amount of testing required by a particular piece of software?
Ans:- You first need to calculate the cyclomatic complexity of a software product to check how much testing is required by a particular software.
21). What is Testware?
Ans:- Testware is defined as artifacts for testing like test cases, test plans, test data needed to execute or design a test.
22). How to compare build and release?
Ans:- The build is a product given to the testing team by the development team for inspecting the quality issues while Release is the final installable product handed over to customers by tester or developer.
23). What are the automation challenges faced by a QA Tester when testing a product?
24). How to compare bug leakage and bug release?
Ans:- Bug release is a technique when the software application is handed over to the testing team knowing that bug is present in the build and it can be removed before the final handover. Bug leakage is something when a bug is discovered by end-users and not detected by testing team or developers.
25). Are you familiar with the data-driven testing?
Ans:- Data-driven testing is an automation testing framework which tests different input on the AUT (Application Under Test). These values are directly taken from the data files in different formats like CSV files, excel files, and more.
26). What is a bug cycle? Discuss different steps followed in a bug cycle.
27). What are the key components of a test strategy?
28). Name a different type of software testing you are familiar with.
Ans:- Different Types of Testing
29). What is Branch Testing?
Ans:- The testing for all branches of code is known as the branch testing.
30). What is Boundary Testing?
Ans:- When testing is focused on limit conditions, it is termed as the boundary condition.
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31). What are the different components of test cases and test plans?
32). What is thread testing?
Ans:- A thread testing is a top-down testing approach where the progressive integration of components is followed as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.
33). What do you understand about configuration management?
Ans:- It is a process for controlling and documenting changes made during the life cycle of a project. Change control and release control are important aspects of configuration management.
34). What is Ad Hoc testing?
Ans:- This is the testing phase, where a tester tries to break the system by trying the system’s functionality randomly. It may include negative testing too.
35). What is Agile Testing?
Ans:- Agile testing is a popular type of software testing based on agile methodologies. This is a common approach used by developers these days.
36). What is the significance of agile testing?
Ans:- The significance of agile testing is that testers don’t have to wait for the development team to complete the coding, but testing and coding may continue simultaneously. It is based on continuous customer interactions too.
37). What steps are you following for an automation test plan?
38). Do you know about the quality audit?
Ans:- It is a systematic and independent examination for determining the effectiveness of the quality control procedure is termed the quality audit.
39). What is Volume Testing?
Ans:- It is the process of checking a system whether a system can manage the required amount of data or user requests, etc.
40). List out your role as a QA tester in your last Company?
41). What are the test driver and test stubs?
42). Why are test drivers and test stubs are required?
Ans:- It is required when you want to test the interface between two modules X and Y. We have developed the X module, and we need a dummy module Y to check the functionality of another module.
43). What is bug triage and why is important?
Ans:- Bug triage is a QA process that ensures:
44). What do you mean by the cause-effect graph?
Ans:- A cause-effect graph is the representation of inputs and associated outputs that are used to design test cases.
45). What is a test metric in QA testing?
Ans:- A test metric refers to the test measurement standards. They are statistics that narrate the structure or content of the testing.
46). What is important information stored by the test metric?
Ans:- The important information contained by the test metric can be given as:
47). How are retesting and regression testing different?
Ans:- Retesting is performed to check the defect fixes, and regression testing is performed to check the impact of defect fixes on product functionality.
48). What is a traceability matrix?
Ans:- A traceability matrix is used for mapping test scripts and requirements together.
49). Name a different type of document you have used in software testing.
Ans:- Different types of documents in QA
50). Explain what should be included in every QA document?
Ans:- Here are the details that every QA document should include:
Important information parameters for QA Document
51). Explain what should be included in a software quality document that is definitely different from the QA documents.
52). What are the best software quality practices as per your work experience?
I have been into software testing for more than five years, and these are some best practices I usually follow to deliver a high-quality product.
53). Is there any rule for test-driven development?
Ans:- Yes, the rule for test-driven development is that you should write the test cases first before you start with the actual coding.
54). How will you define the MR?
Ans:- MR means a modification request that is also referred to as the defect report. It is used for reporting errors or any other potential problems in the software.
55). What are the validations activities to be conducted by the QA Tester?
Ans:- The validation activities to be conducted by a QA tester can be given as:
56). When to perform system testing?
Ans:- System testing is done when all units are in place and working properly. It should be done before UAT (User Acceptance Testing).
57). What are the different SDLC models you know so far?
58). What is the entry criterion?
Ans:- The prerequisites that should be achieved before you start with the QA testing.
59). What are Exit criteria?
Ans:- The conditions that should be met before you conclude the testing.
60). Do you have any idea about State Transition?
Ans:- For state transitions, we pick test cases from an application where different system transitions are tested.
61). How will you define the decision table testing?
Ans:- A decision table technique is appropriate for functionalities how logic relationships among different inputs can be defined. Basically, we deal with a different set of input combinations in case of a decision table.
62). Define the Equivalence class partition.
Ans:- In the case of Equivalence class partition, inputs are divided into different logical groups that exhibit the same behavior. Hence, it becomes easy to design test cases in a proper way.
63). Define the boundary value analysis technique in software testing?
Ans:- The boundary value analysis technique tests the boundary values of valid and invalid partitions.
64). What is HotFix?
Ans:- It is a bug that should be fixed and resolved on priority; otherwise, it may affect the product functionality adversely.
65). What is a showstopper defect?
Ans:- It is a defect that does not allow users to move further in the application. It can be named a crash as well. Take an example of a Login button that is not working properly. Even if you have the right login id and password, it will not allow you to move ahead.
66). Do you have any idea of error seeding?
Ans:- It is the process of introducing known errors intentionally to check the rate of error detection. It helps in analyzing the tester capabilities of finding bugs.
67). What is the Defect Age?
Ans:- It can be defined as the time gap between defect detection and the closure of a defect.
Defect Age = Date of Defect Closure - Date of Defect Detection
68). How will you define a critical bug?
Ans:- A critical bug can affect a large piece of functionality for a software product or it signifies that major software components are broken. Simply, bugs that affect the business of customers are called critical.
69). What is bug severity?
Ans:- It is defined as the impact of a particular bug on the business of a customer. It can be critical, major, or minor.
70). What is bug priority?
Ans:- The bug priority decides which bug should be fixed early and their order too. As soon as, high priority bug is resolved, it will move to the next level.
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71). Why have you chosen QA for your career?
Ans:- I wanted to connect my career with development, so I decided to start with QA first. It can be a platform to become a successful developer with the right skills and knowledge.
72). Why do you like the QA job?
Ans:- It makes you a highly knowledgeable resource with depth knowledge of the product and helps in identifying and resolving the most potential errors to achieve maximum client satisfaction.
73). According to your resume, you have worked for multiple industries in a short time span. Can you explain why?
Ans:- Well, I am not concerned about workplaces because I worked on projects. In my previous work, I was a consultant and more focused on project work.
74). What have you done in your last project?
Ans:- Answers for this question vary from person to person. You just have to brief your experience for the last project and how you become successful in fixing malfunctioning issues.
75). Do You love to work in a group or alone?
Ans:- Mostly, I like to work in a team where each member supports others, and there are always more options to learn something new.
76). How are you dealing with your team members?
Ans:- Everyone has different hobbies, lifestyles, and their area of expertise is also different. Based on my experience, I believe in establishing a nice relationship with team members during short tea breaks.
77). How was your experience with Managers in your previous Companies?
Ans:- I was lucky to meet terrific managers in my previous Companies, who made me comfortable and helped me to solve tough issues gracefully. When a manager is organized, he helps in managing team effectively and achieving goals at the right time.
78). Share some about job conflicts you experience so far, and how were you dealing with it?
Ans:- In my last Company, I faced disagreements by customers that should be fixed on time, and it seems frustrating too many times. So, I designed my own plan to deal with the issue and enable me to maintain a good relationship with the client.
79). What have you learned from your previous Companies?
Ans:- I learned many new things, and I was able to improve my technical competencies to a great extent. The work culture and atmosphere differ from Company to Company, and I learned how to adjust in diverse working environments.
80). What are your career goals?
Ans:- I want to become a successful QA engineer first then will improve my skills and level onwards. Basically, I want to lead this domain so that I can help others struggling in the testing field.
81). Is there any weakness you want to share with us?
Ans:- Nobody is perfect, but I always try to turn my weaknesses into strengths.
82). As an experienced QA tester, which was the proudest moment for you till the time. Please share your achievements with us.
Ans:- Here, you have to explain something that makes you different from the crowd. Think deeply before you answer this question, and it should be impressive and worth mentioning your skills.
83). What are your strengths?
Ans:- I have good storing skills and am able to learn a lot of good stuff together. I also know how to work with deadlines and satisfying a customer with best project deliverables.
84). Is there any special reason for leaving the last job?
Ans:- I have been working in the last Company for a long time, and my career graph is also exciting, but this is the time to give a new boost to the career with a new Company, staff, and salary structure.
85). What are your expectations from our Company if you get hired?
Ans:- I am expecting that I will definitely learn more and improve my skills definitely. At the same time, I will put maximum efforts to enhance the productivity of the Company. I also want to get acquainted with new people who are knowledgeable and interested in the same area.
What are your salary considerations?
Well, Salary is not the sole consideration, but it is important. So, give a definite range that can satisfy you.
86). Where do you want to see yourself in the next 2 to 5 years?
Ans:- I will definitely improve my levels and skills during the next few years to become a pro in the QA domain.
87). Why do you want to join another Company when everything is going well with the existing one?
Ans:- I want to thank my current Company for giving me an opportunity to work with them. But we cannot be restricted to a place. Like everybody, I am also futuristic and looking for a good option that can help me to grow ultimately.
88). What did you do on the first day of your work?
Ans:- I will acquaint myself with new team members and Company documents to make myself familiar with the current work culture.
89). Why should we hire you?
Ans:- My skills set completely matches your job description, and I can be a good team player because I enjoy different work atmospheres. I know how valuable it is to work on Company goals and how to work with team members to attain those goals.
90). How will you solve document challenges when detailed inputs or requirements are not given?
Ans:- If BRD and FSD are not available, I focus on a different point of reference as given below.
91). How will you define the term Error for a software product?
Ans:- If a programmer is not able to run or execute the program, it means there is some error, and you need to fix it now.
92). How will you define the term failure?
Ans:- If the product is deployed at your end with successful testing and end-users find bugs, it is called product failure.
93). What is a bug?
Ans:- If testers found any difference in given requirements and implemented requirements, they called it a bug.
94). What is a defect?
Ans:- The difference between the actual and the expected outcome is a defect. If a developer finds a defect and corrects itself, then it is a defect.
95). Who is involved in the inspection meeting?
96). What is an inspection?
Ans:- It is a formal meeting conducted by an expert moderator where documents under inspection are tested thoroughly by reviewers before the meeting.
It is an informal meeting conducted to gain an understanding of defects and bugs. It clarifies the queries raised by peers in the meeting.
98). How will you define the pesticide paradox?
Ans:- It is the process of repeating the same test cases again and again. Same test cases will not find new bugs so they should be revised from time to time, and it is called the pesticide paradox technique.
99). What is defect cascading?
Ans:- When a defect is not identified or fixed during testing, it triggers other defects. It results in increasing the number of defects at later stages.
100). What is defect clustering?
Ans:- It signifies that a small piece of code has maximum bugs that may lead to operational failures later.
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101). State the difference between Quality Assurance, Quality Control, and Testing?
Ans:- Quality Assurance is the process of planning and defining the way of monitoring and implementing the quality(test) processes within a team and organization. This method defines and sets the quality standards of the projects.
Quality Control is the process of finding defects and providing suggestions to improve the quality of the software. The methods used by Quality Control are usually established by quality assurance. It is the primary responsibility of the testing team to implement quality control.
Testing is the process of finding defects/bugs. It validates whether the software built by the development team meets the requirements set by the user and the standards set by the organization.
Here, the main focus is on finding bugs and the testing teams work as a quality gatekeeper.
102). When do you think QA activities should start?
Ans:- QA activity should start at the beginning of the project. The more early it starts the more beneficial it is to set the standard for achieving quality.
The cost, time, and efforts are very challenging in case the QA activities get delayed.
103). What is the difference between the Test Plan and Test Strategy?
Ans:- Test Strategy is at a higher level, mostly created by the Project Manager which demonstrates the overall approach of the testing for the entire project, whereas the Test plan depicts how the testing should be performed for a particular application, falling under a project.
104). Can you explain the Software Testing Life Cycle?
Ans:- Software Testing Life Cycle refers to a testing process that has specific steps to be executed in a definite sequence to ensure that the quality goals have been met.
105). How do you define the format of writing a good test case?
Ans:- The format of Test Case includes:
106). What is a good test case?
Ans:- In simple words, a good test case is one that finds a defect. But all test cases will not find defects, so a good test case can also be one that has all the prescribed details and coverage.
107). What would you do if you have a large suite to execute in very less time?
Ans:- In case we have less time and have to execute a larger volume of test cases, we should prioritize the test case and execute the high priority test cases first and then move on to the lower priority ones.
This way we can make sure that the important aspects of the software are tested.
Alternatively, we may also seek customer preference that which is the most important function of the software according to them, and we should start testing from those areas and then gradually move to those areas which are of less importance.
108). Do you think QAs can also participate to resolve production issues?
Ans:- Definitely!! It would be a good learning curve for QA to participate in resolving production issues. Many times production issues could be resolved by clearing the logs or making some registry settings or by restarting the services.
These kinds of environmental issues could be very well fixed by the QA team.
Also, if QA has an insight into resolving the production issues, they may include them while writing the test cases, and this way they can contribute to improving quality and try to minimize the production defects.
109). Suppose you find a bug in production, how would you make sure that the same bug is not introduced again?
Ans:- The best way is to immediately write a test case for the production defect and include it in the regression suite. This way we ensure that the bug does not get introduced again.
Also, we can think of alternate test cases or similar kinds of test cases and include them in our planned execution.
110). What is the difference between Functional and Non-functional testing?
Ans:- Functional testing deals with the functional aspect of the application. This technique tests that the system is behaving as per the requirement and specification. These are directly linked with customer requirements. We validate the test cases against the specified requirement and make the test results as pass or fail accordingly.
Examples include regression, integration, system, smoke, etc
Nonfunctional testing, on the other hand, tests the non-functional aspect of the application. It does not focus on the requirement, but on environmental factors like performance, load, and stress. These are not explicitly specified in the requirement but are prescribed in the quality standards. So, as QA we have to make sure that these testing are also given sufficient time and priority.
111) What is Negative testing? How is it different from Positive testing?
Ans:- Negative testing is a technique that validates that the system behaves gracefully in case of any invalid inputs. For example, in case the user enters any invalid data in a text box, the system should display a proper message instead of the technical message that the user does not understand.
Negative testing is different from positive testing in way that positive testing validates that our system works as expected and compares the test results with the expected results.
Most of the time scenarios for negative testing are not mentioned in the functional requirement documents. As a QA we have to identify the negative scenarios and should have provisions to test those.
112) How would you ensure that your testing is complete and has good coverage?
Ans:- Requirement Traceability Matrix and Test coverage matrices will help us to determine that our test cases have good coverage.
The requirement traceability matrix will help us to determine that the test conditions are enough so that all the requirements are covered. Coverage matrices will help us to determine that the test cases are enough to satisfy all the identified test conditions in RTM.
113) What are the different artifacts you refer to when you write the test cases?
Ans:- The main artifacts used are:
114). Have you ever managed writing the test cases without having any documents?
Ans:- Yes, there are cases when we have a situation where we have to write test cases without having any concrete documents.
In that case, the best way is to:
116). What are the different verification techniques you know?
Ans:- Verification techniques are static. There are 3 verification techniques.
These are explained as follows:
(i) Review – This is a method by which the code/test cases are examined by an individual other than the author who has produced it. It is one of the easy and best ways to ensure coverage and quality.
(ii) Inspection – This is a technical and disciplined way to examine and correct the defects in the test artifact or code. Because it is disciplined, it has various roles:
Moderator – Facilitates the entire inspection meeting.
Recorder – Records the minutes of the meeting, defects that occurred, and other points discussed.
Reader – Read out the document/code. The leader also leads the entire inspection meeting.
Producer – The author. They are ultimately responsible to update their document/code as per the comments.
Reviewer – All the team members can be considered a reviewer. This role can also be played by some group of experts if the project demands it.
(iii) Walkthrough – This is a process in which the author of the document/code reads the content and gets the feedback. This is mostly a kind of FYI (For Your Information) session rather than seeking corrections.
117). What is the difference between Load and Stress testing?
Ans:- Stress Testing is a technique that validates the behavior of the system when it executes under stress. To explain, we reduce the resources and check the behavior of the system. We first understand the upper limit of the system and gradually reduce the resources and check the system behavior.
In Load testing, we validate the system behavior under the expected load. The load can be of concurrent users or resources accessing the system at the same time.
118). In case you have any doubts regarding your project, how do you approach it?
Ans:- In case of any doubts, first, try to get it cleared by reading the available artifacts/application help. In case of doubts that persist, ask an immediate supervisor or the senior member of your team.
Business Analysts can also be a good choice to ask doubts. We can also convey our queries to the development team in case of any other doubts. The last option would be to follow up with the manager and finally with the stakeholders.
119). Have you used any Automation tools?
Ans:- The answer to this question is very much exclusive to the individual. Reply to all the tools and strategies of automation that you have used in your project.
120). How do you determine which piece of software requires how much testing?
Ans:- We can know this factor by finding out the Cyclomatic Complexity. The technique helps to identify the below 3 questions for the programs/features
121). Explain the difference between volume testing, load testing, and stress testing.
Ans:- Load testing is when you test the software under a heavier load that is still in the expected range, whereas stress testing is when you test the software under a much heavier load that goes outside the expected range. Volume testing is a system check to find out if the software can manage the expected data or requests
122). What are the steps of an automation test plan?
Ans:- When completing an automation test plan, I review the company's strategy to ensure I follow their guidelines. Typically, I record the scenario while incorporating an error handler. I then debug the script and fix the issues as needed, rerun the script and track the results of the fix.
123). How would you manage a testing issue?
Ans:- I first rerun the test to ensure it was not just an error. If the problem persists, I try to restart the software and the testing environment. This can confirm if everything is working fine on the testing side. If the issue persists, I contact my supervisor for guidance.
The above-mentioned QA Testing interview questions will help experienced and freshers to know what all QA questions are being asked while facing the interview. If you have any queries related to QA interview questions and answers, let me know by commenting on the dialogue box mentioned below.
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