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Basic Interview Questions and Answers on Manual Testing

Introduction

To help you prepare for your upcoming manual testing interview, we have compiled 15 essential questions and answers that commonly arise during these interviews. These questions cover various topics, from testing methodologies and tools to communication skills and problem-solving abilities. By thoroughly understanding and articulating your responses to these questions, you can demonstrate your expertise and increase your chances of impressing the interviewer.

Q1. What are The Benefits of Choosing Manual Testing as a Career?

Ans: The benefits of choosing Manual Testing as a career are:

  • High demand for Manual Testers
  • Manual Testers are flexible to fit in any industry
  • No formal degree is required to get started in this career
  • It is a highly-paid job

Q2. What is the Difference Between a Project and a Product?

Ans: The main difference between a project and a product is that a project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end. In contrast, a product is an ongoing offering designed to meet customer needs.

Products have a lifecycle, including development, introduction, maturity, and eventual decline. While a project is finite and has a clear conclusion, a product is ongoing and undergoes iterative improvements. Projects create products, and understanding this distinction is crucial for practical project and product management within organizations.

Q3. Explain the Phases of Testing Done

Ans: The testing process is typically divided into two phases: verification and validation.

Verification is the process of ensuring that the software meets the requirements. This is done by comparing the actual output of the software to the expected output. Verification involves reviewing and inspecting the work products, such as requirements, design documents, and code, to check for completeness, accuracy, and consistency.

Validation is the process of ensuring that the software meets the customer's needs. It occurs after the development phase and involves executing test cases to verify that the software functions as expected. In other words, validation involves testing the software with real users in real-world conditions.

Q4. What are the Tasks Done During the Analysis Phase?

Ans: During the analysis phase, the team gathers and analyzes requirements, conducts a feasibility study, selects technologies, and creates a tentative plan.

In the software development life cycle analysis phase, the project team diligently engages in a multifaceted process encompassing the meticulous gathering and thorough analysis of requirements. This involves interactive sessions with stakeholders, including end-users and clients, to comprehensively understand their needs and expectations. 

A feasibility study is also conducted to assess the project's viability from technical, operational, and economic perspectives. The team delves into selecting appropriate technologies, weighing factors like scalability and compatibility. 

Furthermore, a tentative plan outlines the project's scope, boundaries, and potential risks. This comprehensive approach ensures a solid foundation for subsequent phases, fostering accurate planning, risk mitigation, and effective communication throughout the software development endeavor.

Q5. Differentiate Between Unconventional Testing and Conventional Testing in Manual Testing?

Ans: Unconventional testing refers to the kind of software testing that is founded on no principles or tradition at all. It is usually applied to test new technologies as well as non-conventional tests of software. 

Conventional testing depends on known standards and conventions. It is commonly used to validate established technologies and standardize software testing procedures.

Q6. What Are the Methods of Testing?

Ans: There are two methods of testing, namely - Unconditional testing and Conditional testing. 

Unconditional testing is a type in which the test cases are executed without regard to the outcome of previous test cases. This means that the entire test suite is executed every time, regardless of whether any defects have been found. Unconditional testing is typically used for exploratory, usability, and smoke testing. It may involve thinking outside traditional testing norms, experimenting with non-standard methodologies, or adopting unconventional strategies to identify unique defects. 

Conditional testing is a type of testing in which the execution of test cases depends on the outcome of previous test cases. This means that if a defect is found in a test case, subsequent test cases may be skipped. Conditional testing is typically used for regression testing and acceptance testing.

Q7. What are the Techniques Used in Manual Testing?

Ans: There are two methods of testing - Black Box testing and White Box testing.

  • Black box testing is a method of testing software without knowing the internal workings of the code. The tester focuses on the inputs and outputs of the software and does not need to know how the software is designed or coded. This type of testing is often used for functional defects, such as incorrect calculations or missing features.
  • White box testing is a method of testing software by knowing the internal workings of the code. The tester knows how the software is designed and coded and uses this knowledge to test for structural and logical defects, such as incorrect algorithms or poorly written code.

Q8. What is Integration level testing?

Ans: Integration testing is software testing that focuses on verifying the interfaces and interactions between different modules or components of a software application. It ensures that the integrated modules work together as intended and that there are no compatibility issues or data corruption when interacting. Integration testing typically occurs after unit testing and before system testing.

Q9. What are the Advantages of Manual Testing?

Ans: The usage of Manual Testing comes with a lot of advantages, 

  • Thoroughness: Manual testers can provide a more in-depth level of testing, especially for complex or user-interface-driven applications.
  • Flexibility: Manual testers can adapt to unexpected behavior or changes in the software during testing.
  • Cost-effectiveness: Manual Testing can be more cost-effective than automated testing for small projects or early stages of development.

Q10. What are the Disadvantages of Manual Testing?

Ans: There are several disadvantages to Manual Testing, some of which are:

  • Time-consuming: Manual Testing can be slow, especially for large or complex applications.
  • Subjectivity: Manual Testing results can be subjective, relying on the tester's interpretation and observation skills.
  • Prone to human error: Manual testers may overlook certain defects due to fatigue or human error.

Q11. What is Exploratory Testing?

Ans: Exploratory testing is a software testing methodology that involves testing software without a predefined test plan. Instead, the tester explores the software freely and identifies potential issues as they arise. Exploratory testing is often used in agile development environments, where the software constantly changes and new features are added.

The primary goal of exploratory testing is to uncover defects, usability issues, and unexpected behaviors in the software.

Q12. How Do Manual Testers Collaborate with Developers to Ensure Software Quality?

Ans: Manual testers play a crucial role in collaborating with developers to ensure software quality. They:

  • Report defects clearly: Provide detailed defect reports, including steps to reproduce, expected behavior, and actual behavior.
  • Participate in code reviews: Review code changes to identify potential defects and suggest improvements.
  • Work with developers to fix defects: Collaborate with developers to understand the root cause of defects, prioritize fixes, and verify that fixes are effective.
  • Provide feedback on test results: Communicate test results to developers, highlight areas of concern, and suggest improvements to testing practices

Q13. What is the Future of Manual Testing?

Ans: The future of Manual Testing is likely to undergo changes influenced by evolving industry trends, advancements in technology, and the increasing adoption of automated testing. Here are some aspects that may shape the future of Manual Testing:

  • Increased Automation: While Manual Testing remains crucial, there's a growing emphasis on leveraging automation for repetitive and time-consuming test scenarios. Manual testers may need to acquire automation skills to stay relevant.

  • Shift-Left Testing: The industry is moving towards earlier integration of testing in the development lifecycle, known as "shift-left testing." This involves more collaboration between developers and testers, emphasizing the need for testers to be involved in the early stages of software development.

  • Focus on Exploratory Testing: As the complexity of applications increases, exploratory testing, with its adaptive and intuitive nature, is likely to become more important. 

  • AI and Machine Learning: The integration of AI and machine learning in testing tools may impact Manual Testing. Testers might work alongside intelligent testing tools, leveraging their skills to design more sophisticated test scenarios and interpret complex results.

  • Continuous Learning and Upskilling: Testers must embrace continuous learning and upskilling to stay abreast of emerging technologies, tools, and methodologies. This may include acquiring automation skills, understanding DevOps practices, and staying informed about industry trends.

  • User Experience (UX) Testing: With an increasing focus on delivering a superior user experience, manual testers specializing in UX and usability testing may find growing opportunities. Ensuring applications meet user expectations and deliver a positive experience is paramount.

  • Combination of Manual and Automated Testing: A hybrid approach that combines the strengths of both manual and automated testing will likely prevail. Testers who can seamlessly integrate manual and automated testing based on project requirements will be valuable.

Q14. What is the Role of Manual Testing in Agile Development?

Ans: In Agile development, Manual Testing plays a critical role in ensuring software quality. Testers work closely with developers to identify and fix defects early in the development cycle. Manual Testing provides quick feedback, facilitates continuous improvement, and supports the dynamic nature of Agile projects.

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Conclusion

This blog post explored a comprehensive range of interview questions and answers on Manual Testing, providing insights into the various testing methodologies, techniques, and best practices. We also discussed the importance of Manual Testing in agile development and the challenges faced by manual testers. To sharpen up your skills, consider enrolling for a QA software testing certification and course that gets you workforce ready.

 

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