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DevOps Interview Questions & Answers for Fresher & Experienced

DevOps Interview Questions & Answers

DevOps is all about CI/CD pipelines that provides a more tangible and realistic way to optimize processes. It helps in building better quality software applications with more test automation. It implements features, upgrades, and security updates in a robust manner. For example,

  • A large mobile in China was able to reduce software cycle times for development, building, testing, and deployment with a successful DevOps implementation that utilizes automated methodologies.
  • Also, an online trading Company was able to deploy their products in just 45 seconds that were taking weeks earlier.
  • When Philips Healthcare replaced manual testing with automated workflows, it was able to save more than $300,000 on an average.
  • Sage went from average test time script from 90 minutes to 20 minutes by adopting automated methodologies.

Here, you can see yourself how Companies are getting benefitted with DevOps implementation and automated workflows, especially in terms of deployment and the overall project costs. The popularity of DevOps in such a small time is the key reason why this product has a plethora of job options and career prospects associated with this software in big corporations.

Adding DevOps skills to your resume can be a ground-breaking factor on how you can excel and improve your job profile. If you are not sure what DevOps skills you should learn, you should download the syllabus for a quick idea.

DevOps Curriculum

DevOps Interview Questions & Answers for Intermediates

If you are looking to attend a DevOps interview recently, here are the most popular DevOps questions and answers to help you in the right way. In this section, we will be discussing DevOps interview questions for intermediates having 2-3 years of experience.

Q1). Describe what DevOps is?

DevOps is the new buzz in the IT world, swiftly spreading all through the technical space. Like other new and popular technologies, people have contradictory impressions of what DevOps is exactly. The main objective of DevOps is to alter and improve the relationship between the development and IT teams by advocating better inter-communication and smoother collaboration between two units of an enterprise.

Q2). What is the programming language used in DevOps?

Python is used in DevOps.

Q3). What is the necessity of DevOps?

Corporations are now facing the necessity of carrying quicker and improved requests to see the ever more persistent demands of mindful users to decrease the “Time to Marketplace.“ DevOps often benefits placement to occur very profligately.

Q4). Which are the areas where DevOps is implemented?

By the passage of time, the need for DevOps is continuously increasing. However, these are the main areas it is implemented in-

  1. Areas of Production Development areas
  2. production feedback
  3. development of IT Operations

Q5). What is agile expansion and Scrum?

Agile growth used as a substitute for Waterfall development training. In Agile, the expansion process is more iterative and additive; there are more challenging and response at every stage of development as opposed to only the latter stage in Waterfall. Scrum is used to accomplish composite software and product growth, using iterative and additive performs. Scrum has three roles:

  1. Product owner
  2. Scrum master
  3. Team

Q6). Name a few most famous DevOps tools?

The most prevalent DevOps tools are stated below:

  1. Puppet
  2. Chef
  3. Ansible
  4. Git
  5. Nagios
  6. Docker
  7. Jenkins

Q7). Can we consider DevOps as an agile practice?

Yes, DevOps is considered as an agile practice where development is driven by profound changing demands of professionals to stick closer to the corporate needs and requirements

Q8). What is DevOps engineer’s responsibility concerning Agile development?

DevOps specialist exertion very methodically with Agile development teams to assurance they have a condition essential to support purposes such as automatic testing, incessant Integration, and unceasing Delivery. DevOps specialist must be in continuous contact with the developers and make all compulsory parts of environment work flawlessly.

Q9). Why is Incessant Testing significant for DevOps?

You can respond to this question by saying, “Incessant Testing permits any change made in the code to be tested directly. This circumvents the glitches shaped by having “big-bang” testing left-hand to the end of the series such as announcement postponements and quality matters. In this way, Incessant Testing eases more recurrent and good class releases.”

Q10). What do you think is the role of SSH?

SSH is a Secure Shell which gives the users a very secure as well encrypted mechanism to safely log into systems and ensures the safe transfer of files. It aids in the process of logging out of a remote machine along with the work on the command line. It helps in securing an encrypted and protected end to end communications between two hosts communicating over an insecure network.

Q11). How will you differentiate DevOps from Agile?

Agile is the technology which is all about software development, whereas DevOps is the technology used for software deployment and management.

Q12). What are the benefits of DevOps when seen from the Technical and Business viewpoint?

The Technical assistance features of DevOps can be given as:

  • Software delivery is incessant.
  • Decreases Difficulty in problems.
  • Quicker approach to resolve problems
  • Workforce is abridged.
  • Business welfare features:
  • A high degree of bringing its features
  • Steady operating environments
  • More time increased to Add values.
  • Allowing quicker feature time to market

Q13). Why do you think DevOps is developers friendly?

DevOps is developers friendly because it fixes the bugs and implements the new features very smoothly quickly. It is amazing because it provides the much-needed clarity of communication among team members.

Q14). What measures would you take to handle revision (version) control?

To manage a successful revision control, you are required to post your code on SourceForge or GitHub so that everyone on the team can view it from there and also there is an option for viewers to give suggestions for the better improvement of it.

Q15). List a few types of HTTP requests.

A few types of Http requests are”

  • GET
  • HEAD
  • PUT
  • POST
  • PATCH
  • DELETE
  • TRACE
  • CONNECT
  • OPTIONS

Q16). Explain the DevOps Toolchain.

Here is the DevOps toolchain-

  • Code
  • Build
  • Test
  • Package
  • Release
  • Configure
  • Monitor

Q17). Elucidate the core operations of DevOps concerning development and Infrastructure.

Here is a list of the core operations of DevOps:

  • Unit testing
  • Packaging
  • Code coverage
  • Code developing
  • Configuration
  • Orchestration
  • Provisioning
  • Deployment

Q18). Why do you think there is a need for Continuous Integration of Development & Testing?

Continuous Integration of Development and Testing enhances the quality of software and highly deducts the time which is taken to deliver it, by replacing the old-school practice of testing only after completing all the development process.

Q19). Name a few branching strategies used in DevOps

A few branching strategies to be used are-

  • Feature Branching
  • Task Branching
  • Release Branching

Q20). What is the motive of GIT tools in DevOps?

The primary objective of Git is to efficaciously manage a project or a given bundle of files as they keep on changing over time. Git tool stores this important information in a data structure kind of thing called a Git repository.

Q21). Explain what the major components of DevOps are?

The major components of DevOps are continuous integration, continuous delivery, continuous integration, and continuous monitoring.

Q22). What steps should be taken when Linux-based-server suddenly gets slow?

When a Linux-based-server suddenly becomes slow, then you should focus on three things primarily:

  • Application level troubleshooting
  • System level troubleshooting
  • Dependent level troubleshooting

Q23). Which cloud platforms can be used for the successful DevOps implementation?

Cloud platforms that can be used for the successful DevOps implementation are given as:

  • Google Cloud
  • Amazon Web Services
  • Microsoft Azure

Q24). What is a Version Control System (VCS)?

VCS is a software application that helps software developers to work together and maintain the complete history of their work.

Q25). What are the significant benefits of VCS (Version Control System)?

The significant benefits of using VCS can be given as:

  • It allows team members to work simultaneously.
  • All past variants and versions are packed within VCS.
  • A distributed VCS helps you to store the complete history of the project. In case of a breakdown of the central server, you may use the local GIT repository.
  • It allows you to see what exact changes are made to the content of a file.

Q26). What is a Git Bisect?

Git Bisect helps you to find the commit which introduced a bug using the binary search. Here is the basic syntax for a Git Bisect: Git bisect

Q27). What do you understand by the term build?

A build is a method in the source code where the source code is put together to check how it works as a single unit. In the complete process, the source code will undergo compilation, testing, inspection, and deployment.

Q28). As per your experience, what is the most important thing that DevOps helps to achieve?

The most important thing that DevOps helps us to achieve is to get the changes in a product quickly while minimizing risks related to software quality and compliance. Other than this, there are more benefits of DevOps that include better communication, better collaboration among team members, etc.

Q29). Discuss one use case where DevOps can be implemented in the real-life.

Etsy is a Company that focuses on vintage, handmade, and uniquely manufactured items. There are millions of Etsy users who are selling products online. At this stage, Etsy decided to follow a more agile approach. DevOps helped Etsy with a continuous delivery pipeline and fully automated deployment lifecycle.

Q30). Explain your understanding of both the software development side and technical operations side of an organization you have worked in the past recently.

The answer to this question may vary from person to person. Here, you should discuss the experience of how flexible you were in your last Company.

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DevOps Interview Questions and Answers for advanced workforce

In this section, we will be discussing interview questions for experienced people having more than three years of experience. Before you go through questions directly, take this quiz first to become a little more confident in your skills.

Q31). What are the anti-patterns in DevOps?

A pattern is used by others, not by organizations and you continue blindly follow it. You are essentially adopting anti-patterns here.

Q32). What is a Git Repository?

It is a version control system that tracks changes to a file and allows you to revert to any particular changes.

Q33). In Git, how to revert a commit that has already been made public?

Remove or fix the commit and push it to the remote repository. This is the most natural style to fix an error. To do this, you should use the command given below: Git commit –m “commit message”

Create a new commit that undergoes all changes that were made in the bad commit. Git revert

Q34). What is the process to squash last N number of commits into a single commit?

There are two options to squash last N number of commits into a single commit.

  • To write a new commit message from scratch, you should use the following command: git reset –soft HEAD ~N && git commit
  • To edit the existing message, you should extract those messages first and pass them to the Git commit for later usage. Git reset –soft HEAD ~ N&& git commit –edit –m “$(git log –format=%B –reverse .HEAD {N})”

Q35). What is Git rebase and how to use it for resolving conflicts in a feature branch before merging?

Git Rebase is a command that is used to merge another branch to the existing branch where you are working recently. It moves all local commits at the top of the history of that branch. It effectively replays the changes of feature branch at the tip of master and allowing conflicts to be resolved in the process. Moreover, the feature branch can be merged to the master branch with relative ease and sometimes considered as the fast-forward operation.

Q36). How can you configure a git repository to run code sanity checking tools right before making commits and preventing them if the test fails?

Sanity or smoke test determines how to continue the testing reasonably. This is easy configuring a Git repository to run code sanity checking before making commits and preventing them if the test fails. It can be done with a simple script as mentioned below:

#!/bin/sh
file=$(git diff -cached -name-only -diff-filter=ACM | grep '.go$')
if [ -z file]; then exit 0
fi
unfmtd=$(gofmt -I $files)
if [ -z unfmtd]; then 
exit 0
fi
eacho "some .go files are not fmt'd"
exit 1

Q37). How to find a list of files that are changed in a certain manner?

To get a list of files that are changed or modified in a particular way, you can use the following command: git diff-tree -r{hash}

Q38). How to set up a script every time a repository receives new commits from a push?

There are three techniques to set up a script every time a repository receives new commits from Push. These are the pre-receive hook, post-receive hook, and update hook, etc.

Q39). Write commands to know in Git if a branch is merged to the master or not.

Here are the commands to know in Git if a branch is merged to the master or not. To list branches that are merged to the current branch, you can use the following command: git branch -merged

To list branches that are not merged to the current branch, you can use the following command: git branch –no-merged

Q40). What is continuous integration in DevOps?

It is a development practice that requires developers to integrate code into a shared repository multiple times a day. Each check-in is verified with an automated build allowing teams to detect problems early.

Q41). Why is continuous integration necessary for the development and testing team?

It improves the quality of software and reduces the overall time to product delivery, once the development is complete. It allows the development team to find and locate bugs at an early stage and merge them to the shared repository multiple times a day for automating testing.

Q42). Are there any particular factors included in continuous integration?

These following points you should include to answer this question:

  • Automate the build and maintain a code repository.
  • Make the build self-tested and fast.
  • Testing should be done in a clone of the production environment.
  • It is easy getting the latest deliverables.
  • Automate the deployment, and everyone should be able to check the result of the latest build.

Q43). What is the process to copy Jenkins from one server to another?

There are multiple ways to copy Jenkins from one server to another. Let us discuss them below:

  • You can move the job from one Jenkin installation to another by simply copying the corresponding job directory.
  • Make a copy of the existing job and save it with a different name in the job directory.
  • Rename the existing job and make necessary changes as per the requirement.

Q44). How to create a file and take backups in Jenkins?

For taking backup in Jenkins, you just need to copy the directory and save it with a different name.

Q45). Explain the process to set up jobs in Jenkins.

  • Go to the Jenkins page at the top, select the “new job” option, and choose “Build a free-style software project.”
  • Select the optional SCM where your source code resides.
  • Select the optional triggers to control when Jenkins performs builds.
  • Choose the preferable script that can be used to make the build.
  • Collect the information for the build and notify people about the build results.

Q46). Name a few useful plugins in Jenkins.

Some popular plugins in Jenkins can be given as:

  • Maven 2 project
  • Amazon EC2
  • HTML publisher
  • Copy artifact
  • Join
  • Green Balls

Q47). How will you secure Jenkins?

Here are a few steps you should follow to secure the Jenkins:

  • Make sure that global security option is on and Jenkins is integrated with the company’s user directory with appropriate login details.
  • Make sure that the project matrix is enabled for the fine tune access.
  • Automate the process of setting privileges in Jenkins with custom version-controlled scripts.
  • Limit the physical access to Jenkins data/folders.
  • Run the security audits periodically.

Jenkins is one of the popular tools used extensively in DevOps and hands-on training in Jenkins can make you an expert in the DevOps domain.

Q48). What is continuous testing in DevOps?

It is the process of executing automated tests as part of software delivery to receive immediate feedback within the latest build. In this way, each build can be tested continuously allowing the development team to get faster feedback and avoid potential problems from progressing to the next stage of the delivery cycle.

Q49). What is automation testing in DevOps?

It is the process of automating the manual process for testing an application under test (AUT). It involves the usage of different testing tools that lets you creating test scripts that can be executed repeatedly and does not require any manual intervention.

Q50). Why is automation testing significant in DevOps?

The automation testing is significant for the following reasons in DevOps:

  • It supports the execution of repeated test cases.
  • It helps in testing a large test matrix quickly.
  • It helps in enabling the test execution.
  • It encourages parallel execution.
  • It improves accuracy by eliminating human intervened errors.
  • It helps in saving the overall time and investments.

Q51). What is the importance of continuous testing in DevOps?

With continuous testing, all changes to the code can be tested automatically. It avoids the problem created by the big-bang approach at the end of the cycle like release delays or quality issues etc. In this way, continuous testing assures frequent and quality releases.

Q52). What are the major benefits of continuous testing tools?

The major benefits of continuous testing tools can be given below.

  • Policy analysis
  • Risk assessment
  • Requirements traceability
  • Test optimization
  • Advanced analytics
  • Service virtualization

Q53). Which testing tool is just the best as per your experience?

Selenium testing tool is just the best as per my experience. Here are a few benefits which makes it suitable for the workplace.

  • It is an open source free testing tool with a large user base and helping communities.
  • It is compatible with multiple browsers and operating systems.
  • It supports multiple programming languages with regular development and distributed testing.

Q54). What are the different testing types supported by the Selenium?

These are the Regression Testing and functional testing.

Q55). What is two-factor authentication in DevOps?

Two-factor authentication in DevOps is a security method where the user is provided with two identification methods from different categories.

Q56). Which type of testing should be performed to make sure that a new service is ready for production?

It is continuous testing that makes sure that a new service is ready for production.

Q57). What is Puppet?

It is a configuration management tool in DevOps that helps you in automating administration tasks.

Q58). What do you understand by the term Canary Release?

It is a pattern that reduces the risk of introducing a new version of the software into the production environment. It is made available in a controlled manner to the subset of users before releasing to the complete set of users.

Q59). What is the objective of using PTR in DNS?

PTR means pointer record that is required for a reverse DNS lookup.

Q60). What is Vagrant in DevOps?

It is a DevOps tool that is used for creating and managing virtual environments for testing and developing software programs.

DevOps Job Interview Questions and Answers

Q61). What are the prerequisites for the successful implementation of DevOps?

Here are the prerequisites for the successful implementation of DevOps:

  • One Version control system
  • Automated testing
  • Automated deployment
  • Proper communication among team members

Q62). What are the best practices to follow for DevOps success?

Here are the essential practices to follow for DevOps success:

  • The speed of delivery time taken for a task to get them into the production environment.
  • Focus on different types of defects in the build.
  • Check the average time taken to recover in case of failure.
  • The total number of reported bugs by customers impacting the quality of an application.

Q63). What is a SubGit tool?

A SubGit tool helps in migrating from SVN to Git. It allows you to build a writable Git mirror of a remote or local subversion repository.

Q64). Name a few networks migrating tools.

  • Splunk
  • Icinga 2
  • Wireshark
  • Nagios
  • OpenNMS

Q65). How to check either your video card can run Unity or not?

Here is the command to check either your video card can run unity or not: /usr/lib/linux/unity_support_test-p

It will give you a depth of unity’s requirements. If they are met, your video card can run Unity.

Q66). How to enable the start-up sounds in ubuntu?

To enable the start-up sounds in Ubuntu, you should follow these steps:

  • Click control gear then click on startup applications.
  • In the “startup application preferences” window, click “Add” to add a new entry.
  • Add the following command in the comment boxes: /usr/bin/Canberra-gtk-play-id= “desktop-login” –description= “play login sound”
  • Now, log out from the account once you are done.

Q67). What is the quickest way of opening an Ubuntu terminal in a particular directory?

For this purpose, you can use the custom keyword shortcuts.

To do that, in the command field of a new custom keyboard, type genome –terminal –working –directory = /path/to/dir.

Q68). How to get the current color of the screen on the Ubuntu desktop?

You should open the background image and use a dropper tool to select the color at a specific point. It will give you the RGB value for that color at a specific point.

Q69). How to create launchers on a Ubuntu Desktop?

To create a launcher on a Ubuntu desktop, you should use the following command:

ALT+F2 then type “gnome-desktop-item-edit-create-new~/desktop,” it will launch the old GUI dialog and create a launcher on your desktop

Q70). What is Memcached in DevOps?

It is an open source, high speed, distributed memory object. Its primary objective is enhancing the response time of data that can otherwise be constructed or recovered from another source of database. It avoids the need for operating SQL database repetitively to fetch data for a concurrent request.

DevOps quiz

Q71). Why Memcached in useful?

  • It speeds up the application processes.
  • It determines what to store and share.
  • It reduces the total number of retrieval requests to the database.
  • It cuts the I/O access from the hard disk.

Q72). What are the drawbacks of Memcached?

  • It is not a persistent data store
  • It is not a database.
  • It is not application-specific.
  • It is not able to cache large objects.

Q73). What are the features of Memcached?

A few highlighted features of Memcached can be given as:

  • CAS Tokens that are used to store the updated objects.
  • Callbacks to simplify the code.
  • GetDelayed to reduce the response or wait time for the outcome.
  • A binary protocol to use with the new client.
  • Igbinary data option is available to use with the complex data.

Q74). Can you share a single instance of Memcached with multiple instances?

Yes, it is possible.

Q75). If you have multiple Memcached servers and one of the Memcached servers gets failed, then what will happen?

Even if one of the Memcached servers gets failed, data won’t get lost, but it can be recovered by configuring it for multiple nodes.

Q76). How to minimize the Memcached server outages?

  • If one of the server instances get failed, it will put a huge load on the database server. To avoid this, the code should be written in such a way that it can minimize the cache stampedes and leave a minimal impact on the database server.
  • You can bring up an instance of Memcached on a new machine with the help of lost IP addresses.
  • You can modify the Memcached server list to minimize the server outages.
  • Set up the timeout value for Memcached server outages. If the server gets down, it will try to send a request to the client until the timeout value is achieved.

Q77). How to update Memcached when data changes?

To update the Memcached in case of data changes, you can use these two techniques:

  • Clear the cache proactively
  • Reset the Cache

Q78). What is a Dogpile effect and how to prevent it?

Dogpile effect refers to the event when the cache expires, and website hits by multiple requests together at the same time. The semaphore lock can minimize this effect.  When the cache expires, the first process acquires the lock and generates new value as required.

Q79). Explain when Memcached should not be used?

  • It should not be used as a datastore but a cache only.
  • It should not be taken the only source of information to run your apps, but the data should be available through other sources too.
  • It is just a value store or a key and cannot perform a query or iterate over contents to extract the information.
  • It does not offer any security for authentication or encryption.

Q80). What is the significance of the blue/green color in deployment pattern?

These two colors are used to represent tough deployment challenges for a software project. The live environment is the Blue environment. When the team prepares the next release of the software, it conducts the final stage of testing in the Green environment.

Q81). What is a Container?

Containers are lightweight virtualizations that offer isolation among processes.

Q82). What is post mortem meeting in DevOps?

A post mortem meeting discusses what went wrong and what steps to be taken to avoid failures.

Q83). Name two tools that can be used for Docket networking.

These are Docker Swarm and Kubernetes.

Q84). How to build a small cloud quickly?

Dokku can be a good option to build a small cloud quickly.

Q85). Name a few common areas where DevOps is implemented?

These are IT, production, operations, marketing, software development, etc.

Q86). What is pair programming in DevOps?

It is a development practice of extreme programming rules.

Q87). What is CBD in DevOps?

CBD or component-based development is a unique style of approaching product development.

Q88). What is Resilience Test in DevOps?

It ensures the full recovery of data in case of failure.

Q89). Name a few important DevOps KPIs.

Three most important KPIs of DevOps can be given as:

  • Meantime to failure recovery
  • Percentage of failed deployments
  • Deployment Frequency

Q90). What is the difference between asset and configuration management?

Asset management refers to any system that monitors and maintains things of a group or unit. Configuration Management is the process of identifying, controlling, and managing configuration items in support of change management.

Q91). How does HTTP work?

An HTTP protocol works like any other protocol in a client-server architecture. The client initiates a request, and the server responds to it.

Q92). What is Chef?

It is a powerful automated tool for transforming infrastructure into code.

Q93). How will you define a resource in Chef?

A resource is a piece of infrastructure and its desires state like packages should be installed, services should be in running state, the file could be generated, etc.

Q94). How will you define a recipe in Chef?

A recipe is a collection of resources describing a particular configuration or policy.

Q95). How is cookbook different from the recipe in Chef?

The answer is pretty direct. A recipe is a collection of resources, and a Cookbook is a collection of recipes and other information.

Q96). What is an Ansible Module?

Modules are considered as a unit of work in Ansible. Each module is standalone, and it can be written in common scripting languages.

Q97). What are playbooks in Ansible?

Playbooks are Ansible’s orchestration, configuration, and deployment languages. They are written in human-readable basic text language.

Q98). How can you check the complete list of Ansible variables?

You can use this command to check the complete list of Ansible variables. Ansible –m setup hostname

Q99). What is Nagios?

It is a DevOps tool for continuous monitoring of systems, business processes, or application services, etc.

Q100). What are plugins in DevOps?

Plugins are scripts that are run from a command line to check the status of Host or Service.

Final Words:

Getting through these DevOps questions is not enough, but you should join the DevOps certification program to master the DevOps skills. We at JanBask Training are here to help you learn all DevOps tools and concepts practically. Take our demo class first to get an idea of instructors and get familiar with the online environment too.

Once you go through the course, it is easy to crack an interview and grab a huge salary package as expected by you.

    Janbask Training

    JanBask Training is a leading Global Online Training Provider through Live Sessions. The Live classes provide a blended approach of hands on experience along with theoretical knowledge which is driven by certified professionals.


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