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Top Software Testing Interview Questions & Answers

Introduction

Do you have an upcoming software testing interview? To help you navigate the process and secure your desired position, we've compiled 15 essential questions and answers that commonly arise during manual testing interviews. These questions cover various topics, from testing methodologies and tools to communication skills and problem-solving abilities. By thoroughly understanding and articulating your responses to these questions, you can demonstrate your expertise and increase your chances of impressing the interviewer.

Q1. What is the Software Testing Life Cycle in Manual Testing?

Ans: The Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) is a process used to test software to ensure that it meets the requirements and is free of defects. The phases of STLC are:

  • Requirements Analysis
  • Test Development
  • Test Analysis
  • Test Execution
  • Bug tracking

Q2. How are Technical and Non-Technical Factors Related to Software Quality?

Ans: Both technical and non-technical factors are essential for software quality. Technical factors ensure the software product meets requirements and satisfies users' needs. Non-technical factors, such as cost and time to market, can also impact the quality of the software product. Both technical and non-technical aspects are interconnected, shaping the overall quality of software products and their ability to meet user expectations and business objectives.

Q3. What is the Software Development Life Cycle?

Ans: The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a process software development teams use to design, develop, test, and deploy software applications. There are six phases in the Software Development Cycle, namely -

  • Initial (or) Requirements phase
  • Analysis phase
  • Design phase
  • Coding phase
  • Testing phase
  •  Delivery and Maintenance phase

Initial (or) Requirements Phase: Stakeholders identify and document the software requirements in the initial phase. 

Analysis Phase: The analysis phase thoroughly examines the requirements to identify potential challenges, constraints, and risks. 

Design Phase: In the design phase, the system architecture is planned, specifying software components, data models, interfaces, and algorithms.

Coding Phase: During the coding phase, developers write the source code based on the design specifications. 

Testing Phase: Testing involves systematically evaluating the software to identify defects and ensure it meets the specified requirements.

Delivery and Maintenance Phase: After successful testing, the software is deployed to users in the delivery phase. 
 

Q4. What are the development models of the Software Process?

Ans: The software process development models are:

  • Waterfall Model
  • Prototype Model
  •  Evolutionary Model
  • Spiral Model
  • Fish Model
  • V-model

The Waterfall Model is a linear and sequential software development approach where each software development life cycle phase must be completed before the next phase begins. 

The Prototype Model is an iterative development approach that involves creating a preliminary version of the software, known as a prototype, to gather feedback and refine requirements.

The evolutionary model is an approach to software development that focuses on continuously refining and improving the software product over time.

The spiral model is a risk-driven, iterative software development model that combines elements of the waterfall model and the iterative prototyping model.

The V-model, also known as the verification and validation model, is a variation of the Waterfall model that emphasizes testing and validation at each stage of the development process.

Q5. What is the User Acceptance Testing Phase (UAT)?

Ans: User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is the final phase of software testing in which the end-users or stakeholders of a software application evaluate and validate the software to determine whether it meets their business requirements and is ready for production use. The primary objective of UAT is to ensure that the software meets the business requirements and functions as expected in a real-world environment. This testing phase involves end-users validating whether the system behaves according to their needs and specifications.

Q6. What is Regression Testing?

Ans: Regression testing is a type of software testing that focuses on verifying that recent code changes, updates, or enhancements to a software application have not adversely affected existing functionality. It ensures that new code modifications do not introduce defects or break previously working features. The primary goal of regression testing is to verify that the recent code modifications have not introduced defects or caused unintended side effects in previously tested software parts.

Q7. What do you Understand by the Test Plan?

Ans: A test plan is a comprehensive document that outlines the approach, scope, objectives, resources, schedule, and deliverables for a software testing project. It serves as a roadmap or blueprint for the testing process and is essential to the software testing life cycle. 

The test plan defines the testing objectives, what needs to be tested, and what should be excluded from testing. It clearly outlines the scope of the testing effort.

Q8. What is the Purpose of Smoke Testing and Sanity Testing? How Do They Differ?

Ans: The primary purpose of smoke testing is to determine if the software build is stable enough for more comprehensive testing. It aims to catch major and critical issues early in the testing process. In contrast, Sanity testing, also known as "sanity check," is performed to verify specific functionalities or areas of the software after changes or fixes have been made. It ensures that the specific defects have been corrected and the software is ready for further testing.

Q9. What is the Importance of Software Traceability in Software Testing?

Ans: Traceability in software testing is a structured and essential process that links and tracks various elements, such as requirements and test cases. It ensures that all requirements are validated, aids in change impact analysis, and helps measure test coverage. By mitigating risks, enhancing communication, and supporting compliance, traceability contributes to the overall quality and reliability of the software. This systematic approach facilitates efficient testing, reducing redundancy and providing a clear audit trail for regulatory requirements. Moreover, it enables better collaboration among project stakeholders, making it a crucial tool for successful software projects.

Q10. State the Non-Functional Test Cases.

Ans: The nonfunctional test cases are:

  1. Compatibility Testing.
  2. Performance Testing.
  3. Usability Testing.
  4. Installation Testing.
  • Compatibility Testing:

Compatibility testing is a type of software testing that assesses how well a software application functions in various environments, including different operating systems, web browsers, devices, and network configurations.

  • Performance Testing:

Performance testing is a category of testing that evaluates the responsiveness, scalability, stability, and speed of a software application under various conditions.

  • Usability Testing:

Usability testing is a user-centered approach that focuses on assessing the software's user-friendliness and ability to meet user needs.

  • Installation Testing:

Installation testing is a type of software testing that ensures that the software can be installed and uninstalled correctly on various systems and configurations. 

Q11. What is the Difference Between Software Verification and Software Validation?

Ans: Software verification and software validation are two essential processes in software testing. They are often used interchangeably, but they have distinct meanings:

Software verification: Ensures that the software is built correctly. It is a process of checking whether the software meets its specified requirements. The development team typically performs software verification.

Software validation ensures that the software is built for the proper purpose. It is a process of checking whether the software meets the needs of its users. The testing team typically performs software validation.

Q12. What is the Difference Between a Test Case and a Test Script?

Ans: A test case and a test script are both documents used in software testing, but they serve different purposes:

Test case: Describes a specific test to be performed on the software. It outlines the test conditions, the expected results, and the steps involved in executing the test.

Test script: A test script provides detailed instructions for executing a test case. It includes the specific inputs to provide to the software, the expected outputs, and any additional actions to be performed.

Q13. What is the Difference Between a Bug and a Defect?

Ans: A bug and a defect are often used interchangeably, but they have slightly different meanings:

  • Bug: A manifestation of a defect in the software. A visible error or problem occurs when the software is used.
  • Defect: An imperfection in the software that causes it to behave incorrectly. It is the root cause of a bug.

Q14. What is the Difference Between a Test Plan and a Test Strategy?

Ans: A test plan and a test strategy are both documents used in software testing, but they serve different purposes:

  • Test plan: Describes the overall approach to testing the software. It outlines the testing scope, objectives, resources, and schedule.
  • Test strategy: Defines the specific testing methods and techniques to be used. It outlines the types of testing, the tools to be used, and the criteria for passing or failing tests.

Q15. What are the Methods to Measure Test Coverage?

AnsThere are several ways to measure test coverage, including:

  • Code coverage: Measures the percentage of code executed by a set of test cases. 
  • Statement coverage: Measures the percentage of statements in the software's code executed by a set of test cases. 
  • Decision coverage: Measures the percentage of decision points in the software's code exercised by test cases. 
  • Branch coverage: Measures the percentage of branches in the software's code exercised by a set of test cases. 
  • Modified condition/decision coverage (MC/DC): Measures the percentage of conditions and decisions in the software's code that are executed by a set of test cases and ensures that each condition and decision is executed at least once with each possible outcome

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Conclusion

This blog has offered you some vital interview questions and answers like test strategies and methods, and testing tools. However, you should sharpen up your testing skills to gain an upper edge against other candidates. Enroll fo the upcoming batch of QA testing training and certification course at JanBsk Training!

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