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Introduction to Software Testing Methodologies: What are Testing Methodologies?

Introduction

So if you are wondering what software testing is, you have reached the platform that will get you every detail well-explained about software testing and its methodologies. 

Testing methodologies in software engineering are testing strategies, approaches, or methods used to test a specific product to ensure its usability. It makes sure that the product works as per the given specifications and has no side effects when used outside the design parameters. Software testing methodologies encompass everything from unit testing to integration testing and specialized form of testing like security or performance testing.

Why are Software Testing Methodologies important?

  • Testing methodologies manage your project requirements, test cases, bugs, issues in a single integrated environment, with full traceability throughout the testing lifecycle.
  • Testing methodologies are a complete testing solution that includes requirements management, test case designs, release management, defect tracking, etc from day one.
  • Testing methodologies are a highly intuitive testing approach that provides a complete picture of the software product and health status.
  • Testing methodologies can leverage your current technology investments with many automated testing solutions and third-party defects management systems.

What Is Software Testing Methodologies?

QA Testing Methodology - Functional vs Non-functional Testing Methodologies

The objective of testing methodologies in the development process is to make sure that software can successfully operate in multiple environments across different platforms. QA testing methodology can further be divided into a functional testing methodology or a non-functional testing methodology.

Functional testing involves application testing against business requirements that includes multiple test types designed to guarantee that each part of the software behaves in the same way as expected by the users. The software application can also be tested by utilizing use-cases by business analysts or the design team. Here are the software testing methodologies that come under functional testing.

Non-functional testing methods incorporate different test types focused on the operational aspects of a piece of software. These are:

The key to releasing high-quality software can be easily adopted by end-users by building a robust testing framework that implements both functional and non-functional software testing methodologies.

Unit Testing

  • In the Testing methodologies, it is the beginning level of testing that is usually performed by the Developers in a test-driven environment to write and run test cases before the software is passed over to the testing team.
  • Unit testing is a software testing methodology that makes sure that individual components of software at the code level are working perfectly for which purpose they are designed.
  • In the QA methodology, Unit testing can be done either manually or it can be automated. The automation process speeds up the delivery cycles and expands the test coverage too.
  • Unit testing makes debugging easy because bugs are detected much earlier and easy to fix by the testing team.

Integration Testing

  • Once each unit is tested thoroughly, it is integrated with other units to create modules or components that are designed to perform specific activities or tasks.
  • In this Testing methodologies, the different software units are generally tested together to ensure whole segments of an application behave as expected.
  • The integration is a software testing methodology that makes sure that interaction among different software units is seamless.
  • It can be performed by developers or users both based on requirements In the QA methodology.
  • Integration testing is a combination of manual tests and automated functional units and is a very important QA testing methodology.
  • Integration tests are usually framed by user scenarios like logging to an application, accessing files, and more.

System Testing

  • System testing is the black box testing method used to evaluate the integrated system as a whole and ensure it meets all specific requirements.
  • In this Testing methodologies. In the case of system testing, the functionality of the product is tested end-to-end and it is usually performed by the testing team, not by the development team.
  • In the QA methodology, System testing is performed before pushing the software product into production.

Acceptance Testing

  • Acceptance testing is the last phase of functional testing to assess the final piece of software for delivery.
  • In this Testing, methodologies make sure that the product is in compliance with the original business criteria and meets the end-user needs completely.
  • In the QA methodology, It performs testing internally and externally. It means the product is given into the hands of users for beta testing and it is tested by the quality team too.
  • Beta testing is key to getting potential feedback from users and addressing them before the final product delivery.

Performance Testing

Performance testing is the non-functional testing technique used to determine how an application will behave under different conditions. The goal is to check the stability of a product in real-life situations.Performance Testing

The performance testing is broken down into four pieces ahead.

  • In this Testing methodologies, in the case of load testing, your software product, website, or application is tested under heavy loads to ensure its load handling capacity.
  • The stress testing explains how a software product will behave under the maximum load conditions. It helps you to identify the failure points of an application.
  • The endurance or soak testing is used to analyze the behavior of an application under simulated load for a longer period. In this QA methodology, The biggest advantage of using endurance testing is that it helps to find memory leaks.
  • Spike testing is used to check how an application system will behave if load increases or decreases suddenly.

Security Testing

With the increase of cyber-attacks and cloud platforms, there is an emergency need for securing the data that is stored within software programs. It is a non-functional type of testing that ensures either a software system is protected or not.

Read: Top 10 Automation Testing Tools to Look Out in 2020

  • The goal of security testing is to find loopholes and security risks in the system in QA methodologies.
  • In this Testing methodologies. It helps to prevent unauthorized access and loss of information by probing the application for weaknesses.
  • The QA methodology majorly works on six security principles as given below.

Security Testing

Usability Testing

  • It is the non-functional testing technique used to check the product usability from the end-user perspective in QA methodologies.
  • In the QA methodology, It is often performed during the acceptance or system testing stages.
  • it is used to determine whether the visible design or aesthetics of an application meet the intended workflow for multiple processes.
  • It is used by the team to review separate functions or the system as a whole in this Testing methodology.

Load, Stress & Volume Testing

  • In this Testing methodologies. It's non-functional testing identified in an SRS document which monitors the system's behavior and performance, such as response time, flow rate, etc.
  • In the load test, the load Steadily increases on the system by increasing the number of users thus measuring its threshold capacity in QA methodologies..
  • In the QA methodology, Stress testing is done to check systems capacity by using invalid inputs 7 increasing users until application breaks.
  • The volume testing is to verify the efficiency and response time of the software for which an enormous amount of data is used to check there is no loss of data in the future.

Recovery & Documentation Testing

  • A recovery test is non-functional testing to test the recovery of data in case there is any power failure or the application is crashed.

In the QA methodology, Documentation testing is essential as they help in verifying technical & maintenance documents to check for compliance with targeted audiences In this Testing methodologies.

Data-Driven Testing

  • In the QA methodology, Data-driven testing allows you to create sets of various test configurations that are prone to be tested.
  • These are automatically generated by the system in QA methodologies.
  • Data-driven testing is extremely quick as it easily runs through the set of permutations & combinations to ensure you didn't miss any case In this Testing methodology.

Uninstallation Testing

  • The sole aim of this testing is to verify & ascertain none of the components cause any error to the product once uninstalled In this Testing methodologies.
  • This ensures that data, executables, and DLL files are removed for testing.
  • Further, it also ensures that software checks through Add/Remove programs menu plus manual deletion of files In the QA methodology.

Compatibility Testing

  • In this Testing methodologies. It is used to check how a piece of software will work in different environments.
  • It is used to check the compatibility of a product for various platforms, operating systems, browsers, etc in QA methodologies.
  • In the QA methodology, It makes sure that the functionality of the product is consistently supported across any environment that can be utilized by the user.

The key to releasing high-quality software can be easily adopted by end-users by building a robust testing framework that implements both functional and non-functional software testing methodologies.

QA Testing Techniques

If you are wondering what is software testing? And which techniques you can use after knowing testing methodologies. Then let’s clear your air.

QA Testing Techniques generally address how to test an application by comparing the actual and expected results. A good testing technique can reduce the steps of the test cases and increase the test functionalities of the software. Thus, building smarter test scenarios, reducing the number of steps required in tests.

White box

White box testing is also known as structure-based testing. This technique is used to review program structure and operating logic. The target is to improve security, enhance design & the flow of inputs/outputs through the application to ease the use.

The white Box includes these Testing Techniques:

Statement/Line Coverage

  • In this technique, the source code is executed at least once to identify errors. Here, each line of the code is tested which helps in identifying errors in codes. One thing to take care of here is you cannot test the false condition in the source code.

Branch/Decision Coverage

  • In this technique, each point of entry for a program / sub-program is invoked at least once. The branch decision has to be true or false to ascertain the final decision.

Condition/Predicate Coverage

  • It's generally used for boolean expressions. In this individual boolean expressions are monitored and evaluated in true or false. This helps in adding stronger criteria when compared with line coverage.

Multiple Condition Coverage

  • In this technique, the potential combinations for possible outcomes of the conditions are tested at least once. Resulting in the identification of the best possible combination.

Black Box

Black Box testing is also known as specification-based testing. The whole purpose is to ensure that it functions properly and meets user demands. This total analysis of the functionality of an application without too much knowledge of the internal structure of the element takes place.

Boundary Value Analysis

  • In this technique test cases include values at the boundaries which are the limit where the behavior of the system changes. If the input is within boundary it's positive testing or else negative testing.

Equivalence Partitioning

  • In this technique, input values are divided into different groups based on similar outcomes thus covering the most likely scenarios to execute test cases.

Decision Table Based Technique

  • It's a table format of different combinations & outcomes to test actions. Here conditions are input & actions are outputs. Thus a tabular representation also gives insight if anything is missed

State Transition Diagram

  • If an application gives a different output for the same input this technique can be used to check the sequence. 

Use Case Testing

  • This testing requires no coding skills. Here once the possible scenarios are identified one can define test cases & conditions finally determining the outcome of the user actions.

Gray Box

This technique is carried out with less information on an application's internal structure.

Exploratory Testing

  • Here the product is studied & strategies using necessary skills and experience by the testing team when they have limited tools & time

Error Guessing

  • It's a simple technique used to guess & detect defects, bugs, and errors that occur in the applications. Basically used when black box & white box methods are unable to identify defects.

QA Testing Methodologies- Development Models

Since Software Testing is an integral part of any Development Methodology, many companies use the term Development Methodologies & Testing Methodologies colloquially. Hence testing methodologies could also refer to Waterfall, Agile, and other QA testing methodologies models as against the above definition of Testing Methodologies. Discussion on various testing types does not add value to the readers. Hence, we will discuss every model for testing in software testing methodologies

Since software development and software testing are integrated, many companies use development methodologies and testing methodologies colloquially. Hence development could refer to the waterfall, iterative, V Model, RAD, Spiral, and Agile methodologies. Here we will discuss the model for testing in software testing methodologies in brief. Still, thinking what is software testing? Here are the models to operate them

1). Waterfall Model

In this QA methodology, In the waterfall model, the progress of software development is checked through different phases like requirement phase, analysis, design phase, etc. The next phase begins only when the earlier phase is completed. The first phase in the waterfall model is the requirement phase where project details are clearly defined in advance before we start with software testing. In this phase, the test team brainstorms the scope of testing, testing objectives, testing strategies, etc.

Advantages:

  • It can be used to easily plan and manage project requirements.
  • It is low-cost and enables faster project execution in QA methodologies.

Disadvantages:

  • It's a predefined methodology and cannot be skipped.
  • Even a minor change in the methodology can bear huge expenses.

Area of Usage:

  • CRM systems (Customer Relationship Management)
  • Supply Chain Management
  • HRM systems (Human Resource Management)
  • Inventory Management 

2). Iterative Model

In this QA methodology, In this model, a bog complex project is divided into small chunks and each part is subjected to multiple iterations of the waterfall model. At the end of each iteration, a new module is added or the existing module is enhanced. Later, modules are integrated into the software architecture and the entire system is tested together.

The feedback for each iteration is quickly incorporated into the next cycle. The total testing time can be reduced for future iteration by the experience gained from past iterations.

Advantages:

  • Shorter iterations for complex software reduce development time and cost.
  • As opposed to the documentation this model offers more flexibility and focuses on design.

Disadvantages:

  • General communications costs can increase significantly after each iteration of feedback.
  • The iteration cycle is stiff and does not overlap.

Area of Usage:

  • Gaming Softwares
  • Streaming Softwares
  • SaaS Softwares

3). Agile Methodology

In this QA methodology, An agile model uses an iterative and incremental approach together. It breaks up the product into small incremental units to provide iterations. Further, each iteration involves steps like requirements, design, coding, testing, etc. This approach allows continuous interaction with customers, collects feedback, and improves the current build at regular time intervals. Here are the reasons why you should adopt the agile methodology for your software project. In fact, it is considered to be the best model for testing in software testing methodologies, by some. Here are the reasons why you should adopt the agile methodology for your software project.

  • It is considered the most realistic approach to software development.
  • It promotes teamwork by regulating interactions among team members.
  • It eliminates the mismatch between test cases and requirements.
  • It is rapid and needs a minimum number of resources.
  • It is good for rapidly changing requirements.
  • It is easy to manage when compared to other development phases.

Advantages:

  • In this methodology complex application processes are easy to manage, modify and test.
  • The extra testing reduces the costs and risks associated with the many changes.

Disadvantages:

  • A lower planning priority can lead to document inefficiencies.
  • It is difficult to anticipate the time and effort involved in major projects.

Area of Usage:

  • For testing of Load and performance
  • For testing of scope in an application.
  • For testing new functions of an application

4). V Model

In this QA methodology, the V model is an extension of the waterfall model where development work is done sequentially. It is also named the verification or validation model. It includes testing phases directly associated with every single phase of the development cycle. It is more beneficial and cost-efficient when compared to the waterfall model because testing is performed side by side instead of completing it at the end.

Advantages:

  • Functions well for small projects when requirements are included & is much more cost-efficient than the waterfall method.
  • Each stage is tested and validated to identify errors early in the development cycle. 

Disadvantages:

  • Does not have an inherent ability to meet changing demands and clear solutions that can eliminate software defects.
  • Not suitable if you are looking to use it for a large project.

Area of Usage:

  • Medical devices applications.
  • Commercial & Government applications 
  • Critical Defense Project applications.

5). RAD Model

This QA methodology, It is a type of incremental model where components are developed in parallel. It is a rapid approach that accelerates deployment and provides feedback. The multiple phases in the RAD model include business modeling, data modeling, process modeling, application generation, testing, etc. The highlighting benefits of the model include progress measurement, reduced development cycles, enhanced reusability, quick feedback, and reviews.

Advantages:

  • Reduces the length of the development and testing cycle, as well as costs and risks as a result of the chronological approach.
  • The Concurrent design and reuse of prototypes reduce development and testing time.

Disadvantages:

  • On-going customer feedback and changes can delay deployment.
  • Requires high technical skills and its difficult to use with legacy systems

Area of Usage:

  • To better the application's graphical user interface.
  • To wireframe & design application prototypes.
  • To modularize systems.

6). Spiral Model

In this QA methodology, The spiral model incorporates the iterative development approach and waterfall approach together. It is similar to the incremental model with more focus on risk analysis. The different phases of the Spiral model include the planning phase, Risk analysis, Evaluation, Engineering phase, etc.

Advantages:

  • Reduced risk because of a high level of risk analysis.
  • Has strong documentation support as well as works well with critical & large projects.

Disadvantages:

  • It's expensive & unsuitable for small projects.
  • It requires good technical know-how as well as its dependence largely on the risk analysis phase.

Area of Usage:

  • System development & maintenance
  • Concept development in Software applications
  • System enhancement in software & engineering applications

7). Extreme Programming Model

In this QA methodology, In this method, the programmers code a simple code and get feedback of the customer’s experience. This model is based on an agile methodology that breaks the tasks into small parts. After each part is complete the next part is operated on. This is essentially used where the needs of customers are constantly evolving.

Advantages:

  • Clients with vague software design in mind could use extreme scheduling.
  • Continuous testing and integration of small versions guarantee high quality of software code.

Disadvantages:

  • There is a big loss of time between the development team and clients for brainstorming.
  • Highly volatile changes could impact the productivity of applications.

Areas of Usage:

  • Fine-scale & Automated Feedback testing 
  • Pair Programming
  • On-site customer testing

Which Software Methodology to Choose?

whats is software testing!! There are tons of QA testing methodologies available that are designed for a specific purpose with their own merits and demerits. The selection of a software methodology depends on multiple factors like the nature of the project, what are the client requirements, project schedule, etc. In some cases, testing and development go side by side while others include testing during later phases when the build is ready.

Setting up Software Testing Methodologies

Setting up Software Testing Methodologies

Testing methodologies are not used just for the sake of code testing but they are used for other purposes too. Here is how to set up the testing methodologies in software engineering.

Scheduling: Realistic scheduling is key to implementing testing methodology successfully that should meet the requirements of each member of the team.

  • Define deliverables: The project deliverables should be well defined to keep all members of the team on the same page.
  • Test Approach: Once you are done with scheduling and project deliverables are defined well without any ambiguity, the next step is formulating the right test approach.
  • Reporting: Transparency is given high importance to implement any testing methodology without failure. This step will dictate the effectiveness of the test approach and changes required for setting up the testing methodology successfully.

Final Words:

As software apps get complex when intertwined with a large number of modules, platforms, or devices that need to be get tested regularly, it is necessary to adopt robust testing methodologies to make sure that software products being developed are fully tested, meet necessary requirements, and successfully operate in all anticipated environments with the needed usability or security with QA methodology.

If you liked our article “Introduction to Software Testing Methodologies: What are Testing Methodologies?” then check out our live-online QA Certification Training by JanBask. We have successfully trained more than 4500 students who are working with top MNC’S. So, If you are looking to master the QA profile you can visit us right away and get our corresponding course designed by market leaders. 


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Comments

  • R

    Riley Walker

    The waterfall model & v model are quite interesting. Can a waterfall model be used in a mid-size or a larger project if any leads?

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Hey, Thanks for sharing your experience. For further insight, you can connect to us at https://www.janbasktraining.com/contact-us

  • B

    Beckham Allen

    Hi, it was a very good beginner’s guide for understanding QA methodology. It even helped me to incorporate it with my studies? Are there any good case studies too that can help?

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Hey, Thanks for sharing your experience. For further insight, you can connect to us at https://www.janbasktraining.com/contact-us

  • R

    Ronan Wright

    Setting up a good analytical method is critical in the QA testing of a software project. Sometimes it's just a normal hunch that should also be considered while testing.

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Hey, Thanks for sharing your experience. For further insight, you can connect to us at https://www.janbasktraining.com/contact-us

  • C

    Colin Rodriguez

    It’s a good practice to understand the size of the project and cost before doing QA testing so one understands which method to use otherwise it leads to huge costs.

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Hey, Thanks for sharing your experience. For further insight, you can connect to us at https://www.janbasktraining.com/contact-us

  • M

    markyjones

    This was a very good explanatory article about the methodologies? Are there any other methods too in QA testing which are noncoding related?

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Hey, Thanks for sharing your experience. For further insight, you can connect to us at https://www.janbasktraining.com/contact-us

  • H

    Hendrix Howard

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     Reply
  • D

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     Reply
  • F

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     Reply
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    Anderson Barnes

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     Reply
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