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Jmeter Tutorial Guide for Beginners

Introduction

Software Testing has undergone a massive evolution in the last decade. The growth has also created an increased need for various testing tools for QA testing to ensure the final product matches the expectation. jMeter is one such tool. It is Open-Source testing software that is a 100% pure Java application for the load as well as performance testing. Enroll in a QA  software testing training program to become a certified tester within a short span. You will find answers to all your queries in this tutorial.

It is specifically designed to enclose different categories of tests like load, functional, performance, regression, etc., and needs JDK 5 or higher. Today's tutorial provides in-depth coverage of the jMeter framework, including system requirements, Installation of JMeter, Elements of JMeter, JMeter Functions and User Variables, Best Practices of JMeter, etc.

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Jmeter Use For Conducting Different Kinds Of Tests

Before moving on to the basics of JMeter, here is a quick brush-up of some crucial tests which have gained high popularity in recent times:

A). Performance Test

Performance tests have become the most essential client expectations at the time of product delivery. There are no takers for slow apps that do not meet the benchmark in terms of speed, loading time, user experience, and design. The test thus checks the performance expectation under a given infrastructure and highlights any changes to be made in the testing process before the application is sent for production. The essential criteria which are tested under the performance testing  are:

  • Throughput
  • Response Time
  • Latency
  • Scalability

Although there are many tools for performance testing like LoadRunner, WebLOAD, LoadUI, NeoLoad, etc. JMeter has finally become the most preferred one.

B). Load Test

As the name suggests, the test helps to check the performance of the app at its maximum load, as it is designed for. In simple words, load testing is a type of performance testing that triggers an actual load on any software, application, or website.

C). Stress Test

The test is designed to break the system by subjecting it to tremendous resource weight, so different parts of the same are overwhelmed.

What is JMeter?

JMeter has attained a level of significance over the years due to its apt performance and reliability. Stefano Mazzocchi of Apache Software was the first to develop it. It is a Java-based application for desktops and makes use of Swing graphical API. Hence it can be used in any environment like Linux, Windows, Mac, etc.

It was developed initially with a view to testing the performance of Apache JServ, which is now known as the Apache Tomcat project. Apache later redesigned JMeter to enhance the Graphical User Interface and addition of other functional capabilities. Apache JMeter 3.1 is the current version which is also available in the market, although there are many more new additions to be added in the future. 

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Protocols Supported by JMeter

  • Web-HTTP, HTTPS sites
  • Database through the JDBC drivers
  • Directory-LDAP
  • Messaging Oriented Service via JMS
  • Service-POP3, IMAP, SMTP
  • FTP Service

Why has JMeter Become Popular?

The popularity of JMeter is due to many reasons which compel businesses and other Quality Assurance Teams to pick it as the primary tool for taking care of performance testing. Here are some of the reasons:

  • It is a freely available tool as it is entirely open-source. It is readily present on the Apache Website.
  • Its user-friendly interface helps the testers to become quickly familiar with it and many of its components. Documentation for help for every component is already present inside the tool.
  • It is known to be easily extensible as users can create their own samplers, making use of the JSR223 and many other plugins for Samplers. These allow the testers to increase the testing capabilities.
  • It has a wide range of protocol support like FTP, HTTP, LDAP, SOAP, etc.
  • There is an in-built Test Script Recorder which is used for recording all kinds of actions from either a website or an app, and the load can further be simulated for testing performance under various kinds of load conditions. A Chrome extension is also available for recording the actions and then the same script, which can be used in JMeter for scaling the load.
  • JMeter can also be integrated with Selenium for various kinds of Automation testing.
  • It is effortless to install JMeter. All you need is to install a Java application on your computer. JMeter can then be downloaded to run the .bat file.
  • Results from JMeter often come in different formats like trees, graphs, and even table representation.

System Requirements

 

The only system requirement is JDK of 1.6 or above and no specific requirement of memory, disk space, and operating system.

Installation of JMeter

JMeter falls in the Java framework; thus, the first requirement is to have JDK installed on the machine. Once Java is installed, you are next required to set the JAVA_HOME variable. The steps for the same are as follows:

  • Firstly, you are required to check the directory where Java is installed. Many times it is installed in “C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_112”
  • Next, you must click on “My Computer” and open properties.
  • Now you have to click on the Environment Variables button.
  • Then you have to click on New under the System Variables section.
  • You then have to enter the JAVA_HOME in the variable name text field.
  • In the case of the Variable Value Text field, you have to enter the JDK/JRE path of installation.
  • Finally, you have to click OK.Installation of JMeter

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When Java is installed then, you are required to open the console and execute either one of the Java commands depending upon which Operating System you are working on:

  • In the case of Windows, you have to Open Command Console by the command c:\> java—version
  • In the case of Linux, you are required to Open Command Terminal by the command $ java -version
  • In the case of Mac, you have to Open Terminal by the command machine: ~ joseph $ java -version.

The output of these commands will depend on the operating system used.

Installation of JMeter

Now you have to install &  Download JMeter 

Once it is downloaded and copied in the C:\>JMeter folder, the directory should look like the following:

  • apache-jmeter-2.9
  • apache-jmeter-2.9\bin
  • apache-jmeter-2.9\docs
  • apache-jmeter-2.9\extras
  • apache-jmeter-2.9\lib\
  • apache-jmeter-2.9\lib\ext
  • apache-jmeter-2.9\lib\junit
  • apache-jmeter-2.9\lib\printable_docs

The directory apache-jmeter can be renamed if required, but you should not change the names of the sub-directories.

Next, you are required to run JMeter by going to the bin directory. The output will again depend on the Operating System. In the case of

  • Windows, it will be jmeter.bat
  • Linux, it will be jmeter.sh
  • Mac, jmeter.sh

JMeter Graphical User Interface shows up after a short gap. It is a Swing Application and looks like the following:

Installation of JMeter

The above is the primary image of the tool. 

Further, if you are looking to enhance your domain knowledge then check out our complete guide on how to become an Automation Tester.

Elements of JMeter

The different components of JMeter are called its elements. Every Element of JMeter has been designed for a particular purpose. Some of the primary elements are:

1). Thread group: It is basically a collection of threads. Every thread stands for a user making use of the application under test. It makes one real user make a server request. The thread group controls also allow for setting the number of threads for every group. E.g., if the number of threads is marked at 100, JMeter will allow for the creation and stimulation of 100 user requests for the server under test.

2). Samplers: Many testing protocols are supported by JMeter like HTTP, FTP, JDBC, etc. As the Thread Groups help in the stimulation of user requests to the server, they are the samplers that assist the thread groups in deciding what requests need to be made like HTTP, FTP, JDBC, etc. Given below is a list of Samplers:

  • FTP Request: It is used in JMeter for carrying out a performance test on an FTP Server. It helps you to send an FTP “download file” or “upload file” request to the FTP Server.
  • HTTP Request: It helps you to send an HTT/HTTPS request to the web server.
  • JDBC Request: It helps in the execution of Database Performance Testing by sending a JDBC Request to a database.
  • BSF Sampler: It allows you to write a Sampler by making use of BSF Scripting Language.
  • SMTP Sampler: This enables the user to send email messages by making use of an SMTP protocol.
  • Access Log Sampler: It helps in reading access logs and thereby helps in the generation of HTTP requests.

3). Listeners: They present the test execution results in a tree, table, log file, or even a graph.

  • Listeners who show graph results often show the server response times on a Graph.
  • View Result Tree shows the results of the user request in the HTML format.
  • Table Results present a summary of a test result in the form of a table.
  • Logs show the summary of test results in the form of a text file.

Also, check out this comprehensive blog to learn how to remove all listeners in an element

4). Configuration: These elements are used for setting up defaults and variables to be used later by samplers. Various types of Configuration Samplers are as follows:

  • CSV Data Set Config: This element allows the reading of different parameters from a text file. It reads lines in a file and then splits them into various variables.
  • HTTP Cookie Manager: It has the same features as a web browser. If you make an HTTP Request and the response has a cookie, the Cookie Manager stores the same for use in all future requests.
  • HTTP Request Default: It helps in setting the default values, which are used by this controller.
  • Login Config Element: It helps add or override username and password settings in the samplers.

Other components of JMeter include WorkBench, Pre-Processor, Post Processor, Logic Controllers, Timer, Assertions, etc.

JMeter Functions and User Variables

JMeter Functions stand for special values that can fill the fields of any Sampler or other element in the test tree. Functions are of two kinds:

  • User-defined static values
  • Built-in functions

The user-defined static values let the user define variables that have to be replaced by static values when the test tree is compiled and has to be submitted to be run. It is not possible to nest these variables.

Functions and Variables are written in any field in any kind of test component. The functions which are designed to perform well in a test plan are intSum, longSum, machine name, BeanShell, JavaScript, jexl, random, time, property functions, and log functions.

There are some restrictions on the functions which are used in a Test Plan. The thread values of JMeter are not entirely set up when the functions are processed, so the names of variables that are passed as parameters will not be set up, and the variable references will not work. Hence, split (), regex (), and other variable evaluation functions will not work. The thread num  () function will thus not work as it does not make any sense at the test plan level.

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Referencing of Functions and Variables

  • Any kind of referencing of a variable in a test element is handled by bracketing the variable name.
  • Even the functions are referenced in the same way but going by the convention, the names of the functions will begin with an underscore to avoid any kind of conflict and user value names.
  • Many functions take arguments for configuring them, and all these go in parentheses, comma-delimited. If the function has no arguments, the parentheses can be avoided.
  • Even the script can be defined as a variable.

Function Helper

A Function Helper is present in the Options tab.

  • A Function helper can be used for selecting a function from a drop-down menu and assigning values for the various arguments. A concise description of the argument is given by the left column in the table, while the right column is the place where the value for the argument is written. Different functions have different arguments.
  • Once done, you have to click the generate button for the generation of the appropriate string, which can be used to copy-paste in the test plan.

Best Practices of JMeter

JMeter has some limitations but will little carefulness, the resource requirements can be brought down significantly. These are as follows:

  • If the number of threads is more, then you should prefer using multiple instances of JMeter.
  • Scoping Rules and Design are checked suitably.
  • Naming conventions are always used for the elements.
  • Listeners can be added appropriately.
  • One should use the non-GUI mode.
  • You should try to use a minimum number of listeners.
  • The “View Result Tree” listener can be disabled as it requires a lot of memory. It often results in freezing of the console or even JMeter running out of memory.
  • Instead of making use of many similar Samplers, one can make use of the same sampler in a loop and use variables to vary the sample.
  • The functional mode is not to be used.
  • One has to use the CSV output rather than the XML.
  • One has to save data only when needed.
  • Assertions also should be minimally used.
  • All the JMeter graphs have to be disabled as they involve a lot of memory.
  • Before every test run, it is essential to clean the Files tab.

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Conclusion

JMeter is an emerging open-source software with a graphical interface by the Apache Software Foundation. It supports many protocols and can be run in any environment. Its popularity is based on many benefits it carries like free availability, intuitive graphical user interface, and is highly extensible.

Considering everything, if you’re required to work on jMeter it’s crucial that you understand all the above-discussed concepts like what is jMeter, what is the use of jMeter in various tests, it’s system requirements, installation of JMeter, elements of JMeter, JMeter functions and user variables, best practices of JMeter, etc. Thus, you’ll be able to work on generating improved reporting and functionality mechanisms on jMeter, which will help in accelerating the complete test process. 

In doing so, you will understand the capabilities of JMeter, which is a simple to use performance testing tool. It’ll even ensure effortless performance testing of apps over various devices and platforms. Also, having a credible QA Testing Certification can help you earn a six-figure salary. A professional institute like JanBask Training can help you get the right training. 

For more information on JMeter and related technologies, you may refer to JanBask Training or get in touch with us.

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Studies have shown that the demand for Software Testing is predicted to grow at least 6% by 2026, and the average income of a Software Tester is $63,070 per year in the United States. 

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Indeed! It is a promising career. Once you learn to test, numerous job opportunities will be available to you in several companies across the world. There are a plethora of jobs out there in numerous industries seeking to hire these professionals. Besides, Software Testers are among the highest-earning professionals in the world, making testing an excellent career choice.

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There are no skills needed before you learn software testing. All the testing courses at JanBaks Training are designed by experts who have taken care of including both primary and advanced-level concepts such that both beginners and professionals can take up these testing tools courses.

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Once you complete any of these testing courses, several job opportunities will be available for you, like:

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This QA training cover the following skills:

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Q10. How do I know if QA Testing is best for me?

If you’re fond of computers and coding, then QA testing is the best choice for you to learn. It’s a very demanding job at the same time, it's the most challenging as well as an exciting career option one can have. If you’re confused about how to start your QA testing career, get in touch with us today. 


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    Aakanksha Dixit

    Aakanksha Dixit is working as Research Analyst at JanBask Training. She has a flair for writing and believes in exploring new horizons in the IT industry to help the job seekers out there. She is a nature-lover, linguaphile, and a traveler.


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