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# Understanding CLIQUE Algorithm in Data Science

Data science is a field that involves the use of various algorithms and techniques to extract valuable insights from data. One such algorithm is the CLIQUE algorithm, which stands for Clustering In QUEst. It is a popular clustering algorithm in data mining and machine learning applications. The CLIQUE algorithm has been widely adopted because it handles high-dimensional datasets efficiently. Understanding CLIQUE algorithm in data mining begins with understanding data science; you can get an insight into the same through our Data Science Training.

In this blog post, we will explore the CLIQUE algorithm, how it works, and its applications in data science.

## What is The CLIQUE Algorithm?

The CLIQUE (Clustering In Quest) algorithm is a density-based clustering method for discovering clusters in high-dimensional datasets. It was developed by Agrawal et al., who proposed an efficient approach for finding dense subspaces within large datasets.

Unlike clustering algorithms like K-means or hierarchical clustering that partition data into non-overlapping groups based on distance metrics, the CLIQUE algorithm identifies dense regions as overlapping subspaces within a dataset. This makes it particularly useful when dealing with complex datasets where traditional methods may not be effective.One of the key advantages of the CLIQUE algorithm is its ability to handle datasets with varying densities. Traditional clustering methods may struggle with datasets with clusters of different sizes or densities, as they tend to identify only one cluster in each region and ignore any smaller ones.

The CLIQUE algorithm, on the other hand, can detect multiple overlapping clusters within a single subspace. It accomplishes this by defining a grid structure over the entire dataset and searching for dense subspaces within each grid cell. The size and shape of these subspaces are determined by user-defined parameters such as minimum density threshold and maximum subspace dimensionality. Continuous characteristics are a requirement for many different types of data mining projects in the real world.

### How Does The CLIQUE Algorithm Work?

The main idea behind the CLIQUE algorithm is to identify dense regions within a dataset by searching for subsets of dimensions that contain many points above some density threshold value. These subsets are called cliques.

To illustrate how the CLIQUE algorithm works, consider a high-dimensional dataset containing points in 3D space (x,y,z). If we apply K-means clustering to this data, we might end up with several non-overlapping clusters based on Euclidean distance between points. However, if there are regions where points are closely packed together but not necessarily close in Euclidean distance (e.g., along a curved surface), K-means may fail to identify these areas as distinct clusters.

By contrast, using CLIQUE would allow us to discover dense regions within subsets of our original data that exhibit higher-than-average densities than surrounding points. For instance, we could define a subspace consisting only of those points whose x-coordinate falls between 0-1, and whose y-coordinate falls between -1-0 so that all neighboring cells get ignored while looking for dense subspaces.

To find these cliques, the following steps are taken:

Step 1 - Define The Density Threshold Value

The first step involves defining a density threshold value (T). This value represents the minimum number of points required to form a clique in each subspace dimension.

Step 2 - Generate Subspace Candidates

Next, all possible combinations of subspace dimensions are generated using an Apriori-like candidate generation technique.

Step 3 - Check The Density Condition

For each subspace candidate generated in step two, check if the number of points in that subspace is greater than or equal to the density threshold value (T). If it meets this condition, then it is considered a clique.

Step 4 - Merge Cliques

Finally, all cliques are merged based on their overlap. Two cliques are said to overlap if they share at least one point in common. The merging process results in a set of overlapping subspaces that represent dense regions within the dataset.

#### Advantages of Using CLIQUE Algorithm

The CLIQUE algorithm is valued in these applications because it can efficiently handle large datasets with high dimensionality. There are various other advantages of using the CLIQUE algorithm:

• The CLIQUE algorithm works well even when there are overlapping subgroups within the data, making it a useful tool in scenarios where traditional clustering algorithms struggle to produce meaningful results.
• Additionally, since it operates on pre-defined parameters such as density thresholds and cluster sizes, it allows users to customize their analyses according to their specific needs.
• Overall, the versatility and efficiency offered by the CLIQUE algorithm make it a powerful tool in various domains ranging from healthcare to finance.
• As more complex datasets continue to emerge across different industries, this clustering technique will likely remain an important analytical method for extracting meaningful insights from massive amounts of data.

### Applications of The CLIQUE Algorithm in Data Science

The CLIQUE algorithm has been widely used in various data science applications such as:

1) Image and Video Processing - It can be used for image segmentation and object recognition by identifying dense regions within an image or video frame.

2) Bioinformatics - It can be used for gene expression analysis by identifying co-expressed genes within high-dimensional datasets.

3) Social Network Analysis - It can be used for community detection by identifying groups of users with similar interests or behaviors within social networks.

4) Fraud Detection - It can detect fraudulent transactions by identifying anomalous patterns within financial transaction datasets.

5) Marketing and Advertising - It can be used for customer segmentation by identifying groups of customers with similar purchasing behaviors or demographics.

6) Recommendation Systems - These can generate personalized recommendations by identifying clusters of users with similar preferences and interests.

7) Medical Diagnosis - It can be used for disease diagnosis by identifying clusters of patients with similar symptoms or medical histories.

8) Traffic Analysis - It can be used for traffic flow analysis by identifying dense regions within traffic data, which could help predict congestion patterns and optimize routes.

One example of how the CLIQUE algorithm has been applied in practice is its use in gene expression analysis. In one study published in BMC Bioinformatics, researchers utilized the CLIQUE algorithm to identify co-expressed genes associated with cancer progression. By analyzing gene expression data from thousands of samples using different parameter settings for density thresholds and minimum cluster size, they could identify distinct sets of genes highly correlated with each other across multiple cancer types. This information provided valuable insights into potential targets for cancer therapy development.

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### Conclusion

The CLIQUE algorithm is a powerful clustering method that has proven useful in many data science applications. Its ability to handle high-dimensional datasets efficiently makes it particularly valuable when dealing with complex data structures. Data scientists can leverage their power to extract valuable insights from large datasets by understanding how this algorithm works and its potential applications. You can check out the data science certification guide to understand more about the skills and expertise that can help you boost your career in data science.

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