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Top 100 RDBMS Frequently Asked Questions and Answers



Introduction

It's no secret that today's employment market is extremely competitive. Getting past the initial hurdle of applying for a job can be a challenge in itself. You've just just begun the long road to finding a new job once you've passed this initial hurdle. The RDBMS market is one of the most competitive fields, especially with so many job seekers competing for so few openings. You need to be at your best in order to stand out from the crowd. 

One of the best ways to do this is to have a set of go-to answers ready for RDBMS basic interview questions. In this blog post, we’ll go over the 100 RDBMS important questions you’re likely to be asked during an interview and how you should answer them.

Let’s get started with the RDBMS interview questions and answers. This series of Oracle RDBMS important questions will cover the in-depth information of relational DBMS

RDBMS Interview Questions and Answers

Below is the quick list of Oracle RDBMS interview questions

Q1). Give a quick idea of the term RDBMS?

Ans:- It helps in storing or managing data across multiple tables. The best part is that you can define relationships among different data entries using tables. Relationships are generally expressed through values, not pointers.

Q2). How will you define a relational database model?

Ans:-It defines the relationship among different databases and how they are connected. When multiple databases are connected, it creates flexibility and can be used within a software app as needed.

Q3). Tell me about RDBMS components? 

Ans:-Each relation in an RDBMS is given a “Name” that will be unique among others. There are rows and columns in each relation columns represent attributes and rows as Tuples.

Name => Attriutes => Tuples

Q4). Give a quick idea of the term Normalization.

Ans:-It is a data organization process where data is organized in such a way that it can minimize redundancy. It divides the database into multiple tables and defines logical relationships among them.

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Q5). Name different Normalization types that can be used with RDBMS?

Ans:-Each has its objectives and purpose. So, you must understand them one by one before implementing it with the database.

1NF , 2NF, 3NF, 4NF, 5NF, BCNF, ONF, DKNF

Q6). Have you ever used a Stored procedure (SP) in RDBMS?

Ans:-Yes, I know about the SPs and worked on the same during my training work. An SP is a group of SQL statements that can be used together to act. It accepts input parameters to be used with different scenarios. To ensure the integrity of a database, SPs are considered an added advantage.

Q7). Give me a quick idea of the E-R Model.

Ans:-It consists of entities and relational objects. Entities can be understood by the collection of attributes in the database.

Q8). Tell me something about various data abstraction levels?

Ans:-In RDBMS, data can be abstracted at three different levels. They are given below -.

Physical Level -> Logical Level -> View 1, View 2 & View 3

The physical level is available at the bottom, giving you a detailed idea of the data storage. The Logical level at the next stage finds the logic among data tables and how to group similar data for easy access. At the top, there is a view level that gives information about the complete database and various views of a database.

Q9). Define the term trigger about the RDBMS.

Read: Top 50 SAS Interview Questions and Answers For Fresher, Experienced

Ans:-It is a stored procedure that acts as soon as some event occurs. Events are not called by the programmers but invoked automatically as soon as edits are made systematically.

Q10). What is a VIEW, and how will you define it?

Ans:-A “view” is a subset of a database used to retrieve, delete, or combine the data. As soon as you edit a view, original data also changes in the table.

Q11). Do you have any idea of INDEX storage in RDBMS?

Ans:-For creating pointers to the data, indexes are used. They help in finding rows in a table quickly. Indexes can be defined for multiple columns together with a different name. They cannot be seen or accessed by users but helps in improving the database performance. For small tables, impacts can be negligible. In the case of complex data tables, the impact of indices is clearly visible.

Q12). There are two types of indexes in RDBMS. Can you tell me their names and the significance?

Ans:-Yes, there are two methods for index storage in RDBMS. These are given below.

  • Clustered Indexes
  • Non-clustered Indexes

Clustered indexes can give information about the physical storage of the data and non-clustered indexes will give you an idea of logical ordering.

Q13). How are RDBMS preferable option over the DBMS?

Ans:-It minimizes redundancy and integrity can be maintained. It maintains data consistency and allows data sharing to other databases. It follows a set of rules to satisfy storage standards and maintains security.

Q14). Tell me about the buffer manager?

Ans:-A buffer manager transfers the data from third-party storage devices to the memory and puts some data into the cache for easy access.

Q15). Tell me about Keys and how are they valuable?

Ans:-A key is a constraint added to a database for restricting the data access requirements. These are important for any database to maintain maximum data integrity.

What is Composite Key in SQL?

Q16). How many keys can be applied to a database?

Ans:-There are different types of keys that can be applied to databases as needed. Here we have listed the names of popular ones that are used frequently.

  • Primary Key
  • Candidate Key
  • Super Key
  • Foreign Key

Q17). What is the most common key that can be applied to almost all database

Ans:-It is the Primary Key. There is only one Primary key in one table.

Q18). If multiple columns have to be used as a Primary key, then what it is called?

Ans:-It is a Candidate Key.

Read: SQL Server Developer & Database Administrator Salary Structure

Q19). If we are using the Primary key from any other table, then what is it called?

Ans:-It is a Foreign key that is used to maintain referential Integrity.

Q20) What are the drawbacks of using a File Processing System?

Ans:- The following are the drawbacks of the File Processing System:

  • Inconsistency and redundancy of data
  • Data access is difficult.
  • Isolation of data
  • Data security.
  • It is not feasible to have concurrent access.
  • Issues with security.

Q21) What Do The "Integrity Rules" Mean?

Ans:- Integrity is determined by two rules. 

  • The entity integrity states that "The value of the primary key cannot be NULL".
  • The Referential Integrity states that "The Foreign Key value can either be NULL or the Primary Key value of another relation.”

Q22) What's the difference between extension and intention?

Ans:- The number of tuples in a table at any one time is known as extension. This is time sensitive. Intention  is a constant value that specifies the table's name, structure, and restrictions.

Q23) How would you describe System R and its subsystems?

Ans:- It is a prototype, and its goal was to show that a Relational System can be built that can be used in a real-world setting to address real-world issues, with a performance at least equivalent to that of existing systems.

It has two subsystems. They are:

  • Research Storage  and 
  • System Relational Data System

Q24) What is the difference between the data structure of System R and Relational Structure?

Ans:-

  • Domains aren't supported.
  • It is optional to enforce candidate key uniqueness.
  • It is optional to enforce entity integrity.
  • There is no requirement for referential integrity.

Q25) How can you tell the difference between logical and physical data independence?

Ans:- Physical Data Independence defines that Physical data changes should not influence logical data. Whereas, logical data independence defines that modifications at the logical level should have an impact on the view level.

Q26)  How can you distinguish between ELT and ETL in DBMS?

Ans:-

elt

Data is processed by ETL on a separate server, whereas data is processed by ELT within the data warehouse. Raw data is not moved into the data warehouse via ETL; instead, raw data is sent directly to the data warehouse using ELT.

Q27) How do you define an Object Oriented Model in a database management system?

Ans:-  The foundation of this concept is a collection of objects. Within an object, values are stored in instance variables. A collection of code that operates on an object is also known as an object. Certain sections of code are referred to as methods.

Must read:  DBMS Interview Questions and Answers for freshers and experienced.

Q28) Distinguish between an entity type and an entity set?

Ans:-  

student

An entity type is a group of things with similar attributes.Whereas, an entity set is a collection of all entities in the database that belong to a specific entity type.

Q29) How can you define the degree of a relation?

Ans:-  The degree of a relation is  defined as the number of attributes in the relation schema.

Q30) Describe the Record at a time procedure.

Ans:-  Each record from a group of records can be specified and retrieved using Low Level or Procedural DML. Record-at-a-time retrieval is the name for this method.

Q31)Define Set-at-a-time procedure.

Ans:-  In a single DML statement, the High level or Non-procedural DML can define and retrieve several records. This type of record retrieval is known as Set-at-a-time or Set-oriented.

Q32) How can you distinguish between Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus?

Ans:-  Relational algebra uses a procedural query language. It is made up of a collection of procedures that accept one or two relations as input and output a new one. Whereas, in relational calculus particularly optimized for relational databases. 

Q33) How do you define functional dependency?

Ans:-  X Y indicates a functional dependency between two sets of attributes X and Y that are subsets of R, and it constrains the potential tuple that could result in a R relation state r.

The restriction is that if t1[X] = t2[X], then t1[Y] = t2[Y] for any two tuples t1 and t2 in r. This means that the value of the X component of a tuple determines the value of the Y component.

Q34) Under what condition Functional Dependency F is said to be minimal?

Ans:-  In F, each right-hand side dependency has just one attribute.

We can't replace any dependency X A in F with a dependency Y A and still have a collection of dependencies identical to F. We can't remove any of F's dependencies while maintaining an identical set of dependencies.

Q35) Explain what is multivalued dependency?

Ans:-  The constraint on any relation r of R is described by the multivalued dependence represented by X Y stated on relation schema R, where X and Y are both subsets of R: If two tuples t1 and t2 exist in r with the attributes t1[X] = t2[X], then t3 and t4 should likewise exist in r with the properties t1[X] = t2[X].

Q36) What do you understand by Lossless Join Property?

Ans:-  It ensures that after decomposition, misleading tuple formation does not occur with relation schemas.

Q37) How can you describe Fully Functional Dependency?

Ans:-  It is based on the concept of total functional dependency. If removing any attribute A from X causes the dependency to break, it is called a full functional dependency.

Q38)What exactly is BCNF?

Ans:-  

A relation schema R is in BCNF if it is in 3NF and meets the extra restriction that X must be a candidate key for every FD X A. Read more about Normalization Forms. 

Q39) In what conditions a relation schema is in 3NF?

Ans:-  A relational model R is in 3NF if it is in 2NF and one of the following is true for every FD X A.

  • R's Super-key is X.
  •  R's most significant feature is A.
  • If the primary key is transitively dependent on all non-prime attributes.

For more clarity, learn about Normalization Forms

Q40) Explain Domain Key Natural Form.

Ans:-  The relation is considered to be in DKNF if all constraints and dependencies that should hold on the constraint can be enforced by merely imposing the domain constraint and key constraint on the relation.

Q41) Explain what are partial, alternative, artificial, natural, and compound keys.

Ans:-  

key

A partial key is a set of qualities that may be used to distinguish weak entities belonging to the same owner.

An Alternate Key is a Candidate Key other than the Primary Key.

Artificial Key: If there is no evident key, either standalone or compound, the final recourse is to invent one by giving a unique number to each record or occurrence. This is called as creating an artificial key.

Compound Key: When no single data element can uniquely identify occurrences inside a build, a compound key is formed by combining many components to create a unique identifier for the construct.

Natural Key: When one of the data items included within a construct is utilized as the main key, the natural key is used.

Q42) Define Query Optimization.

Ans:-  Query optimization is the process of determining an efficient execution plan for assessing a query with the lowest estimated cost.

Q43) Define Checkpoint in DBMS.

Ans:-  A checkpoint is a snapshot of the database management system's current state. By employing checkpoints, DBMS can reduce the amount of work required upon restart in the event of many crashes.

To know more read DBMS Interview Questions and Answers.

Q44) What do you understand about transparent database management systems?

Ans:-  A transparent DBMS keeps the data hidden from the user.

Q45) Explain the Network and Hierarchical Schemas in Database Management Systems.

Ans:-  The Hierarchical Schema utilizes a tree-like structure to arrange data. Here are the components of a hierarchical model:

  • It consists of nodes connected by branches.
  • The root node is the highest node in the tree.
  • When many nodes emerge at the top level, these are referred to as root segments.
  • There is only one parent for each node.
  • A parent may have several children.

Network Schema - 

stares

Network Schema is the hierarchical data model in its advanced form. It organizes data using directed graphs rather than a tree structure. A child can have more than one parent in this situation. It makes use of the two data structures known as Records and Sets.

The above figures can differentiate between hierarchical and network schema in DBMS.

Q46) Describe correlated subquery in DBMS.

Ans:-  For each row of an outer query, these are subqueries that run. Each subquery is done just once for each row in the outer query.

Q47) Differentiate between hash join and merge join 

Ans:-  When the projections of the connected tables are ordered on the join columns, a merge join is used. Hash joins are slower and consume more memory than merge joins. A hash join is used when the projections of the connected tables are not already sorted on the join columns.

Q48) How can you define a Deadlock condition? 

Ans:-  Deadlock happens when two transactions wait for a resource that is locked or while another transaction is held. Deadlocks can be avoided by enabling all transactions to acquire all locks at the same time.

Q49) Distinguish between A super key and a candidate key

candidet key

A super key is a single key or a set of keys that helps to identify a record in a table. Super keys can have one or more properties, even if all of them aren't required for the records to be identified. A candidate key is a subset of Super Key that can identify records in a database using one or more attributes.

Q50) What are the various JOIN operations in SQL?

Ans:-  

The logical operation JOIN is used to get data from many tables. Only when there is a logical link between two tables can it be used. Moreover, the JOIN operator uses data from one table to extract data from another.

Must Read: Advanced SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers.

RDBMS Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced

Below is the list of RDBMS interview questions and answers for experienced candidates. 

Q51). Database Interview Questions: What is Database?

Ans:- A database is a logical, organized, and consistent collection of data that can be easily accessed, managed, as well as managed. It is designed to let you create, insert and update the data efficiently. Database mostly contains objects and tables including records and fields. 

Q52).  Database Design Interview Questions: What is RDBMS? How is it different from DBMS?

Ans:- The abbreviation of Relational Database Management Systems, RDBMS helps in maintaining the data records and indices in tables. It is the form of DBMS that utilizes the structure to find and access data concerning the other pieces of data in the database.   RDBMS is basically a system that allows you to perform numerous operations like update, insert, delete, manipulate, and administrator a relational database with minimal difficulties. 

Q53). Database Questions: What are the different features of an RDBMS?

Ans:- Name: Every relation in a relational database should contain a unique name. 

Attributes: Each column in a relation is called an attribute. 

Tuples: Each and every row in a relation is called a tuple. It also presents a collection of attribute values. 

Q54). Questions about Databases: What are the advantages of RDBMS?

Ans:-Here is the list of major advantages of RDBMS:

  • It controls redundancy. 
  • It can share data. 
  • It can enforce integrity. 
  • It can avoid inconsistencies. 

Q55). Database Interview Questions: Explain different languages present in DBMS.

Ans:-Here is the list of different languages present in DBMS:

DDL: DDL stands for Data Definition Language, it contains commands required to define the database.

DML: Data Manipulation Language contains commands required to manipulate the data available in the database. 

TCL: TCL or Transaction Control Language contains commands required to deal with the transaction of the database. 

DCL: Standing for Data Control Language, DCL contains commands required to deal with the user permission and controls of the database. 

Q56). RDBMS Interview Question: What is an Index? Explain its different types.

Ans:-An index is a performance tuning method that allows the faster retrieval of records from the table. An Index helps in creating an entry for every value. There are three types of indexes: 

Unique Index: Unique index is applied automatically when the primary key is defined. It does not let the field get duplicate values. 

Clustered Index: Clustered Index reorders the physical order of the table and searches depending on the key values. This type of index can have just one clustered index. 

NonClustered Index: It does not modify the physical order of the table and maintains the logical order of data. Each table can have 999 nonclustered indexes. 

Q57). RDBMS Interview Question: What is Database partitioning?

Ans:-Database partitioning is about partitioning tables, indexing into smaller pieces to maintain and access the data at a better level. 

This process decreases the price of storing a huge amount of data and also improves performance and manageability. 

Q58).Questions about Databases: Explain the Data Dictionary.

Ans:-It is a set of information, explaining the content and structure of the tables and database objects. This information is used to control, manipulate and access the relationship between database elements. 

Q59). Database Design Interview Questions: What do you understand about Database Triggers?

Ans:-Database Trigger is a set of commands that get executed when an event such as Before Insert, After Insert, On Update, and On Delete of row occurs in a table. 

Read: Brief Introduction To Different SQL Server Operators

Q60). RDBMS Interview Question: Explain Codd’s 12 rules for an RDBMS?

Ans:- An entity can be taken as an object or thing with independent existence. An entity set is a collection of all entities within a database. Sometimes, an entity set does not have all the necessary attributes to define key constraints and other logical relationships then it is termed as the weak entity set. If an entity set has all necessary attributes to define the primary key and other constraints, it is termed as a strong entity set in that case.

Q61). What do you understand by terms of DDL, VDL, SDL, and DSDL in RDMS? 

Ans:-

  • DDL can be defined as the database schema that specifies a set of definitions through a special language called DDL.
  • VDL that gives information about views and their mapping with the conceptual schema.
  • SDL that gives information about the internal schema and defines the relationship among two storage schemas.
  • DSDL defines the storage structures or access methods utilized by databases.

Q62). What are the different relational operators that can be applied to a database?

Ans:-A wider range of relational operators that can be applied to a database can be given as: SQL Server Operators

  • A Union operator is used to combine multiple rows to avoid duplicate content.
  • An intersect operator is used for finding common elements within a row.
  • A Cartesian operator is used as a cross-join operator to apply on two relations.
  • A difference operator is used to identify the different values in multiple rows.

Q63). What is the significance of ACID properties for a database?

Ans:-

  1. Atomicity
  2. Consistency
  3. Isolation
  4. Durability

These four properties are considered highly important for any database. These properties make a database easy to access and use. It is possible to share data among tables conveniently. Also, it focuses on data accuracy and avoids redundancy.

Q64). How are DBMS and RDBMS different from each other? Give some meaningful differences.

Ans:-DBMS tells about data storage and data creation. RDBMS explains relations among tables and data values. DBMS operations can be used for a specific database, but RDBMS can work on multiple databases together.

Q65). When designing a database, how many relationships can you define?

Ans:-When designing a database, three types of relationships can be defined. These are:

  1. One to One
  2. One to Many
  3. Many to Many

Q66). As we know, there are various normalization forms. So, can you explain the difference between 4NF and 5NF?

Ans:-In the 4NF, it should satisfy the 3NF, and it should not contain two or more views about an entity. In the 5NF, we can reconstruct the information from small pieces of content so that they can be maintained with maximum consistency. Normalization Forms

Q67). One of the biggest challenges faced by system architects is delivering maximum throughput so that millions of transactions can be exceeded per second. So, how will you handle this challenge with care? Justify your answer based on your previous work experience.

Ans:-Whenever you are working on big data problems, it should be handled with care. Let us understand the concept with three technical terms Data Ingestion, Transformations, Storage & Analytics.

Data Ingestion uses technologies like Apache Kafka and streamlines the data across different targets gracefully. The second term is transformation, where data is reconstructed and transformed into a meaningful real-time solution.

The last term is Storage & analytics, where No SQL database can be utilized to manage all data issues and works on consistency problems eventually. Once you are done with it, these three features can give you more flexibility, high throughput, and low-latency benefits. In brief, we should replace the traditional batch-oriented approach with modern streaming solutions.

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Q68). DB Interview Questions: How can views be named as Data independence standards?

Ans:-A “view” is defined as a subset of a database or tables stored in it. It can be used to retrieve, delete, or combine the data. Each View can be taken as a separate table and accessed for the application. When changes are made to a specific VIEW, it will not impact others. This is the reason why VIEWS should be learned first to understand the concept of Data Independence in detail.

Read: Brief Introduction To Different SQL Server Operators

Q69). RDBMS Interview Question: What is a Weak and Strong Entity Set according to your past experiences?

Ans:- An entity can be taken as an object or thing with independent existence. An entity set is a collection of all entities within a database. Sometimes, an entity set does not have all the necessary attributes to define key constraints and other logical relationships then it is termed as the weak entity set. If an entity set has all necessary attributes to define the primary key and other constraints, it is termed as a strong entity set in that case.

Q70). Questions about Databases: What do you understand by terms of DDL, VDL, SDL, and DSDL in RDMS? 

Ans:- The explanation to the mentioned terms stands as:

  • DDL can be defined as the database schema that specifies a set of definitions through a special language called DDL.
  • VDL gives information about views and their mapping with the conceptual schema.
  • SDL gives information about the internal schema and defines the relationship between two storage schemas.
  • DSDL defines the storage structures or access methods utilized by databases.

Q71). Database Questions: What are the different relational operators that can be applied to a database?

Ans:-A wider range of relational operators that can be applied to a database can be given as: SQL Server Operators

  • A Union operator is used to combine multiple rows to avoid duplicate content.
  • An intersect operator is used for finding common elements within a row.
  • A Cartesian operator is used as a cross-join operator to apply on two relations.
  • A difference operator is used to identify the different values in multiple rows.

Q72). Relational Database Interview Questions: What is the significance of ACID properties for a database?

Ans:-

  1. Atomicity
  2. Consistency
  3. Isolation
  4. Durability

These four properties are considered highly important for any database. These properties make a database easy to access and use. It is possible to share data among tables conveniently. Also, it focuses on data accuracy and avoids redundancy.

Q73). Database Interview Questions: How are DBMS and RDBMS different from each other? Give some meaningful differences.

Ans:-DBMS tells about data storage and data creation. RDBMS explains relations among tables and data values. DBMS operations can be used for a specific database, but RDBMS can work on multiple databases together.

Q74). When designing a database, how many relationships can you define?

Ans:-When designing a database, three types of relationships can be defined. These are:

  1. One to One
  2. One to Many
  3. Many to Many

Q75). Database Interview Questions: As we know, there are various normalization forms. So, can you explain the difference between 4NF and 5NF?

Ans:-In the 4NF, it should satisfy the 3NF, and it should not contain two or more views about an entity. In the 5NF, we can reconstruct the information from small pieces of content so that they can be maintained with maximum consistency. Normalization Forms

Q76).  Database Design Interview Questions: One of the biggest challenges faced by system architects is delivering maximum throughput so that millions of transactions can be exceeded per second. So, how will you handle this challenge with care? Justify your answer based on your previous work experience.

Ans:-Whenever you are working on big data problems, it should be handled with care. Let us understand the concept with three technical terms Data Ingestion, Transformations, Storage & Analytics.

Data Ingestion uses technologies like Apache Kafka and streamlines the data across different targets gracefully. The second term is transformation, where data is reconstructed and transformed into a meaningful real-time solution.

The last term is Storage & analytics, where No SQL database can be utilized to manage all data issues and work on consistency problems eventually. Once you are done with it, these three features can give you more flexibility, high throughput, and low-latency benefits. In brief, we should replace the traditional batch-oriented approach with modern streaming solutions.

Q77). Explain the terms ‘Record’, ‘Field’, and ‘Table’ in terms of database.

Ans:-

  • Record: It refers to a collection of values of a specific entity. 
  • Field: This is an area within a record that is reserved for specific data. 
  • Table: This is also a collection of records but specific types. 

Q78). What is the difference between Cluster and Non-Cluster Index?

Ans:-There is a major difference between cluster and non-cluster indexes. Clustered indexes make changes in the table and reorder the way records are stored in the table. Nonclustered indexes also make changes in the data stored in the tablet but it makes a completely different object within the table. 

Q79). Questions about Databases: What do you understand by ‘Atomicity’ and ‘Aggregation’? 

Ans:- Atomicity: It is the condition where either all the actions of the transaction are performed or none. This means, if there is an incomplete transaction, the DBMS itself will undo the impacts made by the pending transactions. 

Aggregation: It expresses the relationship with the entities’ collection and their relationship. 

Q80). Database Questions: What are all types of user-defined functions?

Ans:- There are three types of user-defined functions. 

  • Scalar Functions 
  • Inline Tablet value Functions 
  • Multi Statement Valued Functions 

 Q81). DB Interview Questions: What is Online Transaction Processing (OLTP)?

Ans:- OLTP is used to manage transaction-based applications, it is used for data entry, data retrieval, and data processing. It makes data management efficient. The purpose of the OLTP system is to serve real-time transactions. 

Q82). Database Interview Questions: Name the different data models that are available for database systems.

Ans:- Here is the list of three different data models that are available for database systems: 

  • Relational Model
  • Network Model
  • Hierarchical Model

Q83). RDBMS Interview Question: What are Union, minus, and Interact commands?

Ans:- Union: It is used to combine the outputs of two tables, eliminating the duplicate rows from the tables.

Minus: It is used to return rows from the first query but not from the second query. When you match records of the first and the second query and other rows, you will be able to see the query as a result set. 

Intersect: It is used to return rows that are returned by both queries.  

 Q84).  Database Design Interview Questions: Explain character-manipulation functions? Explains its different types in SQL.

Ans:- Character-manipulation functions effectively extract, edit, format, or modify in some way a character string. 

Ans:- Different types of SQL:

Trim: The SQL trim helps to get rid of the leading and trailing characters from a character string. 

Translate: Translate replaces a sequence of characters in a string with another sequence of characters. It replaces one character at a time. 

Q85). Questions about Databases: Explain the Primary Key and Composite Key.

Ans:- The combination of fields that uniquely specify a row is called the primary key. It is a unique key that has an implicit NOT NULL constraint. It means, its values cannot be NULL.

 The form of the candidate key is referred to as a composite key, it is a set of columns that uniquely figure out every brown in the tablet.  

Q86). RDBMS Interview Questions: What do you mean by cardinality and its types?

Ans:- Cardinality is defined as its equivalence class under equinumerosity. In simple words, it is described as a fundamental relationship between two entities or objects. There are three types of cardinalities- one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many.   

 Q87). Relational Database Interview Questions:  What do you understand about B-Trees?

Ans:- It is basically the representation of the data structure in the form of a tree for external memory that reads and writes large blocks of data. It is generally used in databases and file systems where all the insertions, deletions, sorting, etc., are done in logarithmic time.

Q88). Database Interview Questions: Explain the functionality of the DML Compiler.

Ans:- The work of a DML compiler is to convert the DML statements into a query language that the query evaluation engineer can understand and process. The DML Compiler is needed since the DML is the family of syntax elements that are quite similar to the other programming language that needs compilation. That is why it is important to compile the code in a language that the query evaluation engine can understand. 

Q89)How can you distinguish between OLAP and OLTP?

Ans:- 

ola

Online transaction processing is referred to as OLTP, whereas online analytical processing is referred to as OLAP. OLTP stands for online database modification, while OLAP stands for online database query response.

Q90) What is the use of NVL() function?

Ans:- Null values can be replaced with default values using the NVL function. If the first parameter is null, the function returns the value of the second parameter. If the first parameter is anything other than null, it is ignored. This function is only accessible in Oracle; SQL and MySQL are not supported. 

Read the top Advanced SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers to prepare well in your upcoming interviews.

Q91) Distinguish between Rank() and DenseRank().

Ans:-

Distinguish between Rank() and DenseRank()

The rank of each row within your sorted partition is determined by the RANK() function in the result set. The DENSE RANK() method assigns a unique rank to each row inside a partition based on the provided column value, with no gaps.

Q92) What do you understand by NoSQL?

Ans:-

sql

NoSQL databases are designed for certain data models, such as graphs, documents, key-pairs, and wide-column tables. Unlike relational databases, they feature flexible schemas. NoSQL databases are popular because of their ease of use, functionality, and scalability. They can be expanded horizontally across hundreds or thousands of servers, unlike SQL databases.

Q93) What do you understand by Concurrency Control?

Ans:-

Concurrency control is a database management system process that ensures that concurrent activities do not clash.

Q94)What are various database locks and the types?

Ans:-

Locks are commonly used to ensure that only one user/session can modify a certain piece of data.

There are two types of locks: 

  • Shared Lock - When a request for a shared lock on a table is approved, the table becomes read-only. Other read operations can share this lock, allowing them to read the table at the same time.
  • Exclusive Lock -When an operation seeks an exclusive lock on a table, and it is granted, the operation has the exclusive permission to write to the table. Other activities will be prevented if they request access to the locked table.

Q95) What do you understand by Data Warehousing?

Ans:-

Data Warehousing

Data Warehousing is the process of gathering data from several sources (extracting, converting, and loading) and storing it in a single database. The data warehouse can be thought of as a central repository into which data flows from transactional systems and other relational databases.

 Read more on Oracle DBA Interview Questions and Answers

Q96) What do you understand by lock escalation?

Ans:- Lock escalation occurs when a system combines numerous locks into a single higher-level lock usually to free up resources taken up by a large number of fine-grained locks.

Q97) What do you understand by lock contention?

Ans:- Lock contention arises when numerous operations request an exclusive lock on the same table. Operations must wait in a queue in this situation. If you have ongoing lock contention, you'll need to further divide those data blocks so that multiple processes can gain exclusive lock at the same time.

Q98) What do you understand by hashing and what are its advantages?

Ans:-

advantages

Hashing is a search method. A method of mapping keys to values. Hash functions take a string of characters and turn it into a fixed-length value that may be used as an index to find the original element.

Advantages of hashing

  • It can be used to index and retrieve entries from a database in real time, which is quicker than conventional search methods.
  • It is an ideal data structure for point look up. 
  • Regardless of the input table size, you can search, insert and delete data.

Q99) What are the best practices to improve the query performance?

Ans:-

  • The best practices to improve the query performance are:
  • Multiple joins in a single query should be avoided.
  • Instead than using sub-queries, use joins.
  • For regularly used data and more complicated searches, utilize stored procedures.
  • To limit the size of your results use WHERE expressions.

Read more on Brief Introduction To Different SQL Server Operators.

Q100) What do you understand by the term ‘Write Ahead Log’ in DBMS?

Ans:- The Write Ahead Log is a database system approach for maintaining atomicity and durability of writes. The WAL's main principle is that before we make any actual changes to the database state, we must first log the whole set of activities we want to be atomic and durable to storage.

Must Read : Oracle DBA Interview Questions and Answers.

Final Words:

The Oracle RDBMS interview questions are designed as per the protocol of Oracle Inc.

The blog gives you a sound idea of RDBMS interview questions that you may encounter in your next interview. The discussion during interview questions on RDBMSalways starts with basics like RDBMS, Normalization, Triggers, Views, etc. After this, the interviewer will check your practical knowledge through different examples. So, the blog is enough to practice theoretical RDBMS concepts. To learn the practical aspects of RDBMS and how it is used by Companies, join the RDBMS certification course at JanBask Training, start exploring the world-class RDBMS systems now.

Read: SQL Server Analysis Services – All You Need to Know

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    Jyotika Prasad

    Through market research and a deep understanding of products and services, Jyotika has been translating complex product information into simple, polished, and engaging content for Janbask Training.


Comments

  • K

    Kairo Gray

    Hi! The interview booklet is really helpful, as it includes every important topic that I have read in other articles and booklets. Now, I am curious to know whether the questions included in it be asked in the interview or not.

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Glad you found this useful! For more such insights on your favourite topics, do check out JanBask Training Blogs and keep learning with us!

  • D

    Dante Ramirez

    Does your institute offer online training sessions to prepare how to appear in an interview? If yes, then pls share the link so that I can learn some tips from it.

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Hello, JanBask Training offers online training to nurture your skills and make you ready for an amazing career run. Please write to us in detail at help@janbasktraining.com. Thanks!

  • A

    Atticus James

    Where can I find SQL server interview questions, as I have to appear for its interview after one week? Pls revert, Waiting for your response!

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Hello, JanBask Training offers online training to nurture your skills and make you ready for an amazing career run. Please write to us in detail at help@janbasktraining.com. Thanks!

  • K

    Killian Watson

    The booklet is really impressive, as it includes a good collection of questions for both beginners as well as the person who is preparing for it for a long time. Thanks Team!

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Hello, JanBask Training offers online training to nurture your skills and make you ready for an amazing career run. Please write to us in detail at help@janbasktraining.com. Thanks!

  • S

    Stephen Brooks

    I think there are few questions that require some changes. Pls consider my suggestions and update the answers.

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Thank you so much for your comment, we appreciate your time. Keep coming back for more such informative insights. Cheers :)

  • O

    Orion Kelly

    Day after tomorrow, I have to face a SQL DbMS profile based interview, and I was really worried about that and also not sure about my preparation but after going through this question guide the best thing I get is a quick review of all important questions.

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Thank you so much for your comment, we appreciate your time. Keep coming back for more such informative insights. Cheers :)

  • M

    Malakai Sanders

    I have a few queries related to stack overflow, and not getting a satisfying answer, can i reach your training exports to help me on this.

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Thank you so much for your comment, we appreciate your time. Keep coming back for more such informative insights. Cheers :)

  • A

    Ali Price

    I want to know, if your training institute provides separate classes on DBMS AND RDBMS or cover under SQL course, and if you provide separate courses for RDBMS, what is course fee and duration.

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Thank you so much for your comment, we appreciate your time. Keep coming back for more such informative insights. Cheers :)

  • E

    Eduardo Bennett

    Good choice of question and answers are also well descriptive, but I felt I missed some important technical questions but overall a good guide will certainly help you crack the interview.

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Thank you so much for your comment, we appreciate your time. Keep coming back for more such informative insights. Cheers :)

  • F

    Fernando Wood

    Quite an informative one, covering almost all important questions that are often asked by interviewers.

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Thank you so much for your comment, we appreciate your time. Keep coming back for more such informative insights. Cheers :)

  • P

    Paul Wilson

    Wow! You have smartly covered all the major questions and answers related to RDBMS Interview. It is a great guide for aspirants!

     Reply
  • J

    Josue Rodriguez

    This is an amazing post! I am always reading your blog to educate myself and learn something new every day. Looking forward to your next post.

     Reply
  • M

    markyjones

    Awesome, such an interesting and informative post, it took me around 10 minutes to go through the whole article. This is more like a guide for RDBMS aspirants. Thank you so much for sharing!!

     Reply
  • D

    Damien Turner

    Don’t have enough words to express my excitement! This is one of the best posts on RDBMS Interview Questions & Answers. I’m pretty sure that this post is going to help many people

     Reply
  • L

    Louis Anderson

    This is a comprehensive guide with all the important information. I really enjoyed going through different questions and answers of RDBMS.

     Reply
  • S

    Stephen Brooks

    Great information in such an interactive way. Going to help a lot. You stated all of the factors when it comes to preparing for the RDBMS interview.

     Reply
  • B

    Bodhi Rivera

    Information on RDBMS interviews is very confusing on different sites. Thank god, I could check your website and find the exact information. Thanks a lot for sharing!

     Reply
  • K

    Kayson Powell

    Very nice post as always. I will make sure to share this post with my developer friend, it may help them to learn something new. Thanks for sharing such a wonderful article with us.

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      We are really glad to know that you found this post helpful and interesting.

  • M

    Manuel Murphy

    I was looking for this kind of comprehensive post to prepare for my RDBMS interview. Thank god, I came here. Keep writing such amazing posts, I will love to explore more.

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Thank you so much for your valuable comment, often come to our site to read more interesting content.

  • K

    Kameron Rogers

    Although I’m not preparing for the RDBMS interview, these questions and answers seem very important and bring a value addition. I will make sure to bookmark this post for future use, thank you!

     Reply
    • JanbaskTraining

      Thank you. We have always been striving to help our readers through valuable content.

  • A

    Andera

    Thanks for sharing this vast knowledge on RDBMS and SQL. These questions will definitely help me in my upcoming interviews.

     Reply
  • K

    Kay

    Very well explained and top questions. Thank you for this informative post.

     Reply

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