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Real-Time BI Questions and Answers for SQL Interview


Real-time Business Intelligence (BI) solutions involve accessing and analyzing data immediately as it is generated, providing instant insights for timely decision-making. These solutions are crucial for maintaining a dynamic and responsive data environment in SQL. Utilizing techniques like snapshots and replication ensures low-latency copies of transaction systems, enhancing the availability and efficiency of BI systems. 

Prepare to excel in your SQL interview with these 15 key Real-Time BI questions and answers!

Q1: What Does "Real-Time" Mean For Data Delivery? Is It Instant, Frequent, Or Daily?

A: When discussing "real-time" data delivery, we discuss how quickly information gets updated and becomes accessible. It's essential to clarify the various interpretations in real time. Many users ask for real-time data, which means daily updates. While daily updates are standard in business, a significant shift occurs when the requirement is a latency of less than 24 hours. 

This demands changes in the architecture and structure of your ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) processes. Regardless of whether your system supports daily, weekly, or monthly updates, the basic design principles for your DW/BI (Data Warehouse/Business Intelligence) system remain consistent.

Q2: What Is "Very Low Latency" In Data Delivery, And How Is It Implemented In BI Solutions?

A: "Very low latency" in data delivery means getting information to business users faster than loading it into the DW/BI system, though not instantaneously. This range operates within seconds as the lower bound and minutes, usually under 5, as the upper bound. Implementing a very low latency BI solution often involves an Enterprise Information Integration (EII) application, where query request complexity needs careful management. 

Microsoft's BizTalk is pivotal in EII solutions, offering lightweight data cleaning and transformation services. Despite its benefits, the complexity handled by BizTalk's ETL falls short compared to SSIS. Typically, a deficient latency application maintains its own data store, related to the data warehouse but separate from its database.

Q3: Who Benefits From Real-Time BI Systems, And How Should The System Be Tailored To Meet Their Needs?

A: Real-time BI systems are most valuable to those in operational roles, and it's crucial to identify specific business users who require instant access and understand their needs. Typically, executives aren't concerned with the number of orders placed in the last 15 minutes. 

This operational focus simplifies the design process for real-time systems, allowing designers to concentrate on delivering necessary information without the added complexity of supporting ad hoc use of current data. Identifying the right users and their specific requirements becomes essential to tailoring the real-time BI system effectively.

Q4: How Does The Shift To Real-Time Data Delivery Impact The Overall Goals Of A DW/BI System, And What Challenges Arise In Implementing A Real-Time Architecture?

A: Transitioning to real-time data delivery keeps the fundamental goals of your DW/BI system the same. The commitment to data quality, integration, conformance, usability, and security remains unchanged. However, implementing a real-time architecture introduces tradeoffs. 

You balance the delivery of real-time data to those who need it while protecting those who don't, which is a significant challenge for the DW/BI team—striking a balance between meeting the demands of users who seek real-time data and those who do not pose a crucial dilemma. The assumption that pushing latency closer to real-time is universally advantageous raises questions about the associated costs of delivering data in real-time.

Q5: How Does Adding Operational Duties To A DW/BI Team's Charter Impact Its Strategic Focus, And What Challenges Arise When Merging Real-Time Operations With Strategic Objectives?

A: Integrating operational duties into a DW/BI team's charter poses the risk of allowing urgent tasks to overshadow critical strategic goals. The introduction of real-time operations may compromise the strategic nature of the DW/BI system. 

It's essential to recognize that strategic groups typically avoid operational responsibilities precisely to avoid this conflict. When operational duties are added, there's a potential shift from a strategic, long-term focus to immediate, day-to-day concerns. Striking the right balance becomes crucial to ensure that operational demands maintain the overarching strategic objectives of the DW/BI team.

Q6: In The Context Of Data Processing In The ETL Pipeline, Why Might It Be Necessary To Limit Data Quality Screening To Column Screens And Simple Decode Lookups?

A: In scenarios where the time available for processing data in the ETL pipeline is constrained, there's a necessity to streamline data quality screening. This often involves restricting screening to less resource-intensive methods such as column screens and simple decode lookups. 

While these approaches are generally feasible even in aggressive real-time applications, the challenge arises with more complex structural and business rule screens. These screens, requiring assessments across multiple fields, rows, and tables, may exceed the time and resource constraints. 

For instance, tasks like remote credit checks through a web service may prove impractical. In such cases, users may need to be informed about the provisional and potentially unreliable nature of real-time data.

Q7: In A Real-Time Environment, Why Is It Expected To Receive Transaction Events Before The Corresponding Contextual Information?

A: In the real-time data landscape, it's frequent to encounter transaction events arriving before their associated contextual details, such as customer attributes. When the real-time system cannot afford to wait for dimension resolution, a practical solution is to employ the techniques that involve posting generic placeholder versions of dimension members, ensuring referential integrity between facts and dimensions is maintained. This logic is more likely a crucial aspect of the real-time ETL design, especially compared to a daily batch process where the timing of facts and dimension data alignment is less critical.

Q8: What Is The Second Technique For Improving The Performance Of Reports Against Live Data, And How Does Creating A Snapshot Report Address Issues Associated With Cached Reports?

A: The second technique involves creating a snapshot report, a Reporting Services Enterprise, and a center Editions feature. A snapshot report saves the entire report, including its dataset, in the report catalog database. 

This addresses the issue of uneven performance in cached reports, where someone, unpredictably, might experience delays when executing a cached report after the old cache has expired. With a snapshot report, you can schedule its execution to run regularly and store its results, ensuring that users, especially critical ones like the CEO, do not face delays associated with expired cached reports.

Q9: In Real-Time Architectures, Why Might Some Systems Opt To Eliminate Data Staging, And What Considerations Should Be Addressed If Implementing Such A Strategy Is Within The DW/BI Team's Responsibility?

A: Certain real-time architectures, especially those with very low latency EII systems, bypass data staging, and stream information directly from the production source to users' screens without storing it permanently in the ETL pipeline. 

If this falls under the DW/BI team's responsibility, a crucial discussion with senior management is warranted. Questions around meeting backup, recovery, archiving, and compliance responsibilities arise. At a minimum, the entire data stream passing through the DW/BI system must be captured, ensuring data integrity and compliance considerations are appropriately addressed.

Q10: In Real-Time Systems, What Risk Arises When Tracking Dimension Attribute Changes, And How Can The Challenge Of Potentially Inflating The Number Of Changes Be Mitigated?

A: In real-time systems, there's a significant risk of erroneously tracking an excessive number of dimension attribute changes. This risk stems from the potential misinterpretation of multiple attribute updates during the day as separate events when, in reality, they are part of a single administrative event affecting multiple attributes. 

In the context of a type 2 dimension, where each attribute update adds a new row to the dimension table, this can lead to adding multiple rows for what is essentially a single change. To mitigate this, a reliable method of extracting fully committed changes from the source system is crucial, preventing the unnecessary inflation of rows in conformed dimension tables used throughout the DW/BI system.

Q11: What Considerations Should Be Considered When Replacing A Batch File Extract With A Message Queue Or Transaction Log Reading?

A: When contemplating the shift from a batch file extract to reading from a message queue or transaction log file, it's crucial to understand the nature of the data involved. While batch files typically offer a clean and consistent view of completed transactions, message queue and transaction log data can be raw and instantaneous, lacking corrective processes or business rule enforcement. 

A recommended strategy to ensure data accuracy involves a hybrid approach. During a quiet night, the "hot partition" containing today's data can be replaced with information extracted from the conventional batch source, striking a balance between real-time updates and maintaining data integrity.

Q12: What Is a Significant Challenge When Integrating Real-Time Data Into A DW/BI System, Particularly Concerning Type 1 Updates To Dimension Attributes?

A: Integrating real-time data into a DW/BI system poses a notable challenge with type 1 updates to dimension attributes. While updating the dimension table itself is manageable, the complexity arises in maintaining performance aggregations or summary tables. 

For instance, if managing customer addresses as type 1 updates, where the attribute is modified, the challenge extends to adjusting pre-computed aggregations, especially those related to the geography hierarchy. When a customer's address is updated, historical fact rows need to be shifted from the old geography to the new one, impacting every fact table linked to the dimension, regardless of whether it is undergoing real-time updates.

Q13: What Are Some Alternative Architectural Solutions For Delivering Real-Time Business Intelligence, And What Are The Associated Characteristics Of Latency, Integration, And Effort Involved In Each Solution?


Execute reports in real-time:

  • Latency: Very low latency; instantaneous when the report is executed.

  • Integration: None.

Serve reports from a cache:

  • Latency: Frequent.

  • Integration: None.

Create an Operational Data Store (ODS) using a database mirror and snapshot:

  • Latency: Frequent.

  • Integration: None.

Create an ODS using replication:

  • Latency: Very low latency.

  • Integration: Very little.

Build a BizTalk application:

  • Latency: Very low latency.

  • Integration: Moderate.

Build a real-time partition:

  • Latency: Frequent.

  • Integration: Substantial.

These solutions offer various tradeoffs regarding latency, integration effort, and suitability for different business intelligence scenarios. Choosing the most suitable solution depends on specific business requirements and constraints.

Q14: How can an Operational Data Store (ODS) be Created Using Mirrors And Snapshots, And Why Is Mirroring Combined With Snapshots A Valuable Strategy In SQL Server For Maintaining A low-latency copy of transaction systems?

A: To create an ODS, interpreted here as a low-latency copy of transaction systems, you can utilize mirrors and snapshots. While part of the overall DW/BI system, the ODS is distinct from the data warehouse database itself. 

The straightforward ODS involves replicating a transaction database with minimal integration. In SQL Server 2005 or later, an efficient method is to establish an ODS by creating a database snapshot of a mirror of the transaction system.

Mirroring, primarily designed to enhance transaction database availability, is insufficient for the ODS as a mirror cannot be queried. 

The solution lies in creating a database snapshot on top of the mirror, enabling the provision of low-latency reports. Database snapshots, read-only static views of the source database, are hosted on the same server instance as the source database. It's preferable to snapshot a mirror rather than the transaction database directly. Both Mirroring and Snapshots are enterprise features of SQL Server.

Q15: What Is An Alternative Approach For Creating An Operational Data Store (ODS), And How Does Using SQL Server Replication Differ From The Mirror + Snapshot Method?

A: An alternative method for establishing an ODS is utilizing SQL Server replication, offering distinct advantages compared to the mirror + snapshot approach:


  • Replication is available on older SQL Server versions, predating SQL Server 2005.

Selective Definition:

  • Replication allows definition on a subset of the source database, making it more efficient if real-time requirements focus on specific areas.


  • Slight transformations are possible during data movement with replication. However, caution is advised as this feature, while less robust than Integration Services, can impact source system performance, potentially leading to dissatisfaction with DBAs.

While database mirrors and snapshots are widely used for ODS creation, replication provides flexibility, particularly for older SQL Server versions and scenarios where real-time needs concentrate on specific database segments. The choice between methods should align with specific requirements and considerations.

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Real-time Business Intelligence (BI) in SQL is the swift data extraction and analysis, providing immediate insights for informed decision-making. JanBask Training's SQL courses offer comprehensive education on techniques like snapshots and replication, ensuring proficiency in creating low-latency copies of transaction systems. 

Individuals gain the expertise to implement mirrors, snapshots, or replication by enrolling, thereby accelerating their organization's data-driven decision-making capabilities.

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