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Top 100 Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers


This blog for Software tester interview questions is a researched collection of frequently asked scenario-based software testing interview questions and answers for experienced and freshers to practice in 2020. If you want to brush up on software testing concepts and want to learn something meaningful for your next interview, then you should definitely go through these interview questions for testing experienced.

Here, we have given a maximum number of software testing questions to help you with the job interview at the intermediate and advanced levels. It will help you to maximize software testing career opportunities that are sure to come your way by taking QA testing training by JanBask Training and earn certification as well after the course.

The blog is divided into three categories for your reference, software testing questions for freshers, software testing interview questions for experienced, and scenario-based software testing interview questions and answers for experienced. Let us discuss each of the categories one by one.

Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced

These questions are suitable for those professionals having two to three years of experience in the testing field. These questions will help you to explore more career options and increase your salary package too.

Q1). How can you define the relationship between test phases and environment reality?

When test phases are in progress stage, environment reality becomes more significant here. For unit testing, the environment is partly real. At the same time, for acceptance testing, the environment should be 100 percent real.

Q2). Should testing be done during execution or after the execution?

Well, it is great to perform testing at earlier phases. Earlier you catch the bug; there are better chances of resolving errors without issues. For example, if you catch a defect in the maintenance phase, it is ten times costlier to fix than the execution phase.

Q3). Take an example that defects that can be removed at the initial stage were removed in a later stage. So, how will it affect the costs?

It is obvious that if a defect is found at an earlier stage, then it should be removed at the same stage. In case, it is resolved in a later stage, then costs may increase up to 20 times that depends on when you fix it. The following figure will give you a perfect idea of cost evaluation at later stages.

If a defect is identified and fixed during requirements and design stage, then it is quite easy to afford. On the other hand, if the same defect is fixed during the maintenance phase, it becomes 20 times costlier.

Q4). How will you define the regression and confirmation testing?

Regression testing shows that changes made to the code will not affect the other functionalities of a software application. If a software product fails due to some errors, then a new version is launched where previous bugs were fixed gracefully, it is called the confirmation testing or retesting.

Q5). How to estimate the project cost? Tell us based on your past experiences?

To estimate the project costs, the following facts should be considered by a quality engineer.

  • Divide the complete project into small chunks.
  • Allocate tasks to different team members.
  • Now estimate efforts required to complete each task.
  • In the last step, validates should be estimated.

Q6). Do you have any idea of Random testing?

For random testing, data is usually generated randomly with the help of a tool. Here is the diagram to show how random data is sent to the system.

Random data is collected with the help of a tool, or you can use any other mechanism too. The system is tested with randomly generated, and results are observed accordingly.

Q7). What is BVA (boundary value analysis)?

BVA is a black box testing technique that is applied to see if there are any defects at the boundary of the input domain.

Q8). Name the basic components in a report format.

The basic components in a report format can be given as:

  • Project Name
  • Module Name
  • Defect detected on, resolved on
  • Defect detected by, resolved by
  • Defect ID and Name
  • Snapshot of the defect
  • Priority and Severity status

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Q9). Which test cases are written first, white boxes or black boxes?

Usually, black box test cases are written first, then white box test cases are written at the later stages. For writing black box test cases, we need requirements, design plan, and project plan. These details are easily available at the initial stage; at the same time, white box test cases demand high architectural details, so they are written later.

Q10). Is automation testing useful in agile methodology or not?

Yes, it is useful because it helps in maximizing test coverage in a shorter period.

Q11). What are the different phases involved in the software testing life cycle?

These are requirements analysis, test planning, test case development, environment set up, test execution, and test cycle closures. Check: Software Testing Life Cycle

Q12). What are the different levels of testing?

These are Unit testing, Integration testing, System testing, and Acceptance testing.

Q13). What are the different testing methodologies?

These are White-box testing, Black-box testing, and Grey-box testing.

Q14). What is black-box testing?

This is a testing strategy based on requirements and specifications. It does not require knowledge of internal paths, coding structures, and implementation of software being tested. Black box test cases are usually written at the early stages when the project is initiated.

Q15). What is white-box testing?

The white-box testing strategy requires knowledge of internal paths, coding structures, and implementation of software being tested. It requires detailed programming skills written in later stages.

Q16). What is grey-box testing?

This is a software debugging testing strategy where the tester has limited knowledge of internal details of the program.

17). What is the defect life cycle or bug life cycle?

A defect life cycle is a process where a defect goes through multiple throughout the project development life cycle. It starts when a bug is detected and ends when the bug is fixed.

Q18). How to compare functional and non-functional testing?

  • Functional testing is performed before non-functional testing based on customer requirements, and it describes what a product does exactly.
  • Non-functional testing is performed after the functional testing based on customer expectations, and it describes how a product work.

Q19). What do you understand by the term validation and verification in software engineering? 

  • Validation is a dynamic analysis technique where testing is performed by executing the code — for example, functional and non-functional testing techniques.
  • Verification is a static analysis technique where testing is performed without executing the code — for example, reviews, walkthrough, inspection, etc.

For the V model, testing starts from the requirements phase. The validation and verification testing processes go hand in hand.

Q20). What is the test case?

A test case is a set of conditions to verify a system under different requirements either it is working correctly or needs improvements.

Q21). How will you define usability testing in software testing?

It is a testing methodology where end customers are asked if the product is easy to use and what changes can be added to make the product more useful and reliable. The accurate way for performing usability testing is designing a prototype or mock-up during the initial cycles.

Q22). Name different categories of defects in software engineering?

These are Wrong, Missing, and Extra. “Wrong” category implies that requirements are implemented wrongly from given specifications.

The missing category implies that requirements are not implemented well or left out by mistake. “Extra” category implies that few requirements are implemented extra that was not given by end customers.

Q23). How to prepare an acceptance plan during software testing?

Read: What Is The Learning Path Of A Penetration Tester?

An acceptance plan or document in software engineering can be prepared by following inputs. These are:

  • Requirements Document
  • Inputs from the customer
  • Project plan

Q24). What is test coverage?

A different set of parameters used in software testing to describe the extent to which source code can be tested is termed as the coverage.

Q25). Name different types of coverage techniques you have used in your last Company?

These are Statement Coverage, Decision Coverage, and the Path Coverage.

  • Statement Coverage: It makes sure that each line of the source code is tested and executed well.
  • Decision Coverage: It makes sure that every decision in the source code is tested and executed.
  • Path Coverage: It makes sure that every possible route through the given source code is tested and executed.

Q26). Why do you feel automation testing is beneficial for software testing?

Here are the benefits of automation testing I experienced in the last few years:

  • It supports execution for repeated test cases.
  • It helps in testing a large test matrix quickly.
  • It helps in enabling parallel execution.
  • It encourages unattended execution.
  • It improves accuracy and reduces human-generated to a large extent.
  • It saves the overall cost and time in application testing.

Q27). What is Selenium? Have you used it during your work experience?

Yes, I have worked on Selenium in my last Company. Selenium is a popular automated testing tool that is used for automating test scripts carried out on web browsers. Selenium is an open source testing tool, and no costs are involved when implementing Selenium. This is the biggest advantage that makes it even more powerful as compared to other automated testing tools.

Q28). What are the benefits of Selenium testing for a complex software project?

Here are a few highlighting benefits of selenium testing tool for your reference.

  • When you are using Selenium, test scripts can be written in multiple programming languages like C#, Python, PHP, Ruby, Java, etc.
  • Tests can be carried out on different operating systems like Windows, Linux, or Mac operating system, etc.
  • Tests can be carried out on different browsers like Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari or Opera, etc.
  • It can be integrated with many other testing tools and generating reports.
  • It can be integrated with Docker or Jenkins to achieve continuous testing.

Q29). Name different components of Selenium.

They can be given as:

Q30). What is a locator?

A locator is an address that identifies web elements uniquely and accurately within web pages.

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Q31). Name different types of locators in Selenium Testing.

Different types of locators in selenium testing can be given as:

  • ID, Name
  • ClassName
  • CSS Selector
  • TagName
  • linkText
  • PartialLinkText
  • Xpath, DOM

Q32). What is XPath?

XPath or XML path is an important strategy for locating elements in Selenium. It consists of path expressions along with some conditions. It is easy writing XPath query to locate elements within web pages.

Q33). How to compare the absolute path and relative path in software testing?

An “Absolute” path is a direct way of finding elements. If any changes are made in the absolute path, then the relative path fails. On the other hand, the “relative” path starts with double slashes, and it finds elements somewhere else on the web page.

Q34). Are there any exceptions in Selenium WebDriver?

The most common exception in Selenium are:

  • Timeout Exception
  • NoSuchElement Exception
  • ElementNotVisible Exception
  • StaleElement Exception

Q35). When to use Selenium Grid in software testing?

Selenium grid is used to execute the same or different scripts on different browsers or platforms when required to achieve the distributed test execution, test under different environments, and save execution times remarkably.

Q36). How will you launch the browser using WebDriver?

Here is the syntax to launch a browser using WebDriver.

  • WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
  • WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
  • WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

Q37). Do you have any idea which test cases can be automated?

  • Smoke test cases
  • Regression test cases
  • Complex calculation test cases
  • Data-driven test cases
  • Non-functional test cases

Q38). Which parameters can be used to measure the success of automation testing?

Here is the set of parameters to measure the success of automation testing.

  • Defect Detection Ratio
  • Automation execution time and time savings to release the product
  • Reduction in Labour & other costs

Q39). What do you understand by the term Load Testing for Websites?

Load testing checks the loading time of a website. When you send a request to the server, you have to measure how much time it takes in loading a particular web page. Thus, it helps in determining performance issues and server capacity, etc.

Q40). How to compare Selenium and Sikuli?

Selenium Sikuli
It does not automate the flash objects. It can automate the flash objects.
It has a complicated API. It has a simple API.
It can automate web apps only. It can automate both Windows and web apps.

Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers

Q41). How to click on a hyperlink using linkText () function?

Here is the command that can be used to find elements and click on that element. Hence, the user will be redirected to the desired page.

Driver.findElement (By.linktext(“Google”)).click();

Q42). How can you define TestNG?

It is an advanced framework designed for leveraging the benefits of both developers and testers. It has a built-in testing mechanism that lets the program run without terminating unexpectedly.

Q43). How to define priorities for test cases in TestNG?

Here is the syntax for defining the test case priority in TestNG:

package TestNG;
import org.testng.annotations.*;
public class SettingPriority {
public void method1() {
public void method2() {
public void method3() {
Test Execution Sequence:

Q44). What is an Object Repository, and how to create an Object Repository in Selenium?

Object Repository is the collection of web elements belonging to Application Under Test (AUT) along with their locator values. In respect to the Selenium, objects are stored in an excel sheet and populate then when necessary.

Q45). How to input text in the text box using Selenium WebDriver?

With the help of the sendKeys () method, we can input text in the text box using Selenium WebDriver.

Q46). How to compare Selenium and QTP (Quick Test Professional) in software testing? 

  • Selenium supports all possible browsers and QTP works on limited browsers only.
  • Selenium is a free open source tool and QTP is a licensed tool that is commercialized.
  • Selenium works on web-based apps only and QTP works on both web apps and Windows apps.

Q47). What is the workbench concept in software testing?

A workbench is the core way of documenting how one particular activity can be performed. It further referred to as phases, tasks, or steps, etc.

Q48). What are the different tasks of a Workbench?

  • Input
  • Execute
  • Check
  • Production output
  • Rework

Q49). What are the different types of inputs we need from end users for the proper testing?

These are the acceptance test plan, requirements, risks, data, and scenarios for testing.

Q50). Define the defect cascading in software engineering?

Defect cascading is a defect caused by any other defect. Take an example, where defects are available at a particular stage but not identified or resolved at the same stage. It hides to other phases without any further notice and results in several defects in later stages.

Q51). What are the different stages to follow for rollout to end users?

Read: Ranorex Tutorial – A Powerful Test Automation you Need to Learn
  • Pilot
  • Gradual Implementation
  • Phased Implementation
  • Parallel Implementation

Q52). How to find broken links within a web page using Selenium WebDriver?

There are practical questions where multiple broken links in a web page can be given to you by the interviewer and you have to verify them. For an experienced workforce, it is just a matter of time to find broken links using different tools and techniques.

Q53). If frame id and frame name are not given in the script then what other technique can be used by expert testers?

You should “frame by index” technique here when frame id and name are not given. Here is the syntax for your reference.

Drive.switchto().frame(int arg0);

Q54). How to login to a site if it shows the popup for ID and password?

If there is popup for login id and password, you should use explicit command here and verify if the alert is actually present or not. The code below can help you in understanding the explicit wait command.

WebDriverwait wait = new WebDriverwait(driver, 10);

Alert alert = wait.until(Expectedconditions.alertIsPresent());

Alert.authenticateUsing(new UserAndPassword(**username**, **password**));

Q55). What is the process for taking screenshots in Selenium WebDriver?

You should use the TakeScreenshot function for taking screenshots in Selenium WebDriver. Here is the syntax for a better understanding of the concept.

File scrFile = ((TakeScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(outputType.FILE);

Q56). How to skip a method or call in TestNG?

To skip a call or method in TestNG, you can use the following annotation:

Q57). What is the meaning of the code snippet below?

WebElement sample = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[contains(text(), 'data')]"));

It uses web element as the variable and an XPath to initialize it with reference to an element that contains the text value data.

Q58). How to compare static and dynamic testing?

Static testing involves reviewing documents and identifying defects at the early stages of SDLC. Dynamic testing involves code execution and validating output with the expected outcome.

Q59). How to compare quality assurance and quality control?

Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach and quality control is a product-oriented approach. Quality assurance is all about defects prevention and quality control deals with defects identification.

Q60). Define the meaning of software testing as per your understanding.

It is the process of analyzing software defects and comparing available requirements with the given requirements.

Software Testing Job Interview Questions and Answers

Q61). What is a Test Plan?

A Test Plan is a document that contains all testing activities to be performed to deliver high-quality software. It is taking the SRS (system requirement specifications) document as a base.

Q62). What are the possible contents for a Test Plan? 

  • Test plan identifier
  • References, Introduction
  • Test items (functions)
  • Software risk issues
  • Features to be/not to be tested
  • Approach,
  • Items pass/fail criteria
  • Suspension criteria
  • Test deliverables
  • Remaining test tasks
  • Environmental needs
  • Staff and training needs
  • Responsibility and Schedule
  • Plan risks and contingencies
  • Approvals, Glossaries
  • Resolution requirements

Q63). What is positive testing?

It helps in determining what a system is expected to do. It checks either a system meets exact requirements or not.

Q64). What is negative testing?

It is used for checking what a system is not expected to do. It helps in identifying defects from particular software.

Q65). How will you define the test strategy?

It is a high-level document prepared by the project manager that explains the approach on how to perform the testing to achieve the final goals. It is taking the BRS (business requirement specifications) document as a base.

Q66). What do you understand by the term Test Scenario?

It is a high-level test case that gives an idea of what should be tested.

Q67). What do you understand by the term Test Suite?

It is a collection of test cases that are intended for testing an application.

Q68). What do you understand by the term Test Environment?

A test environment is a perfect combination of hardware and software where testers perform the testing.

Q69). What do you understand by the term Test Bed?

It is an environment configured for the testing that contains hardware, software, AUT, network configurations, etc.

Q70). What do you understand by the term Test Harness?

A test harness can be defined as the collection of test data and software configured to test a program by running it under different conditions and monitoring the actual outcome with the expected outcomes.

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Scenario-based Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced

Q71). What do you understand by the term Test Data?

Test data is used by quality engineers for testing or running the test cases. When running test cases, testers should add some input first. Test data is prepared by tester either manually, or they can use tools for the same purpose.

Q72). What is Test Closure?

A test closure is the formal note prepared by testers before they are completing the testing process.

Q73). Define the test closure activities in software testing.

The test closure activities in software engineering are divided into four major categories. These are:

  • Check for test completion
  • Test artifacts handover
  • Lessons learned
  • Archiving Data

Q74). What do you understand by the term code coverage?

Code coverage is all about unit test practices that target all areas of code at least once. It can be done either by unit testers or developers.

Q75). Is the code coverage technique different from the test coverage?

Yes, they are different.

Q76). What is Unit Testing?

Read: Top 21 Automation QA Tools to Look Out in 2023

Unit testing is performed for checking individual components of an application whether they work properly or not. It is done by developers in the development environment.

Q77). What do you understand by the integration testing?

It is the process of testing an interface between different software units. It is done in three ways, a Big Bang Approach, a Top-down approach, bottom-up approach.

Q78). What is system testing?

System testing is a practice of evaluating fully integrated software with its specific requirements. Sometimes, it is named as the end to end testing too.

Q79). Define the big bang approach.

When all modules are combined and tested individually, a big band approach is used to test them together how they work when connected with each other. Here, top-down and bottom-up testing techniques are carried out simultaneously.

Q80). What is the top-down testing approach?

It takes place from top to bottom where high-level modules are tested first, and low-level modules are tested later.

Q81). What is the bottom-up testing approach?

It is performed from bottom to up where low-level modules are tested first, and high-level modules are tested later.

Q82). What do you understand by Alpha Testing?

Alpha testing is done by developers, clients, or the outsourcing team as per the requirement.

Q83). What do you understand by Beta Testing?

Beta testing is done by a limited number of end users before the final deployment. It is generally done in the client space.

Q84). What do you understand by Gamma Testing?

Gamma testing is done when the software is ready for the release with specific requirements. It is usually done at the client space by skipping all in-house activities.

Q85). What do you understand by Smoke Testing?

Smoke testing is done to make sure that either build is testable or not. It is performed at the building level to check the whole application when key features don’t work.

Q86). What do you understand by Sanity Testing?

Sanity testing is done at the release phase to check the main functionalities of a product without going deeper. It is a subset of the regression testing.

Q87). How will you define the retesting?

To make sure that defects that were found earlier were fixed and don’t exist in the current build.

Q88). What is Regression Testing?

It is done repeatedly by testers every time new changes are made to the software product and ensuring existing functionalities don’t get disturbed due to extra features.

Q89). What is GUI testing?

GUI testing is performed to test the interface between end users and an application.

Q90). Define globalization testing.

It is the process of designing a software application adaptable to multiple languages and regions without making any modifications.

Q91). Define recovery testing.

It is the process to check how quickly a system can be recovered after the system crash. It comes under non-functional testing.

Q92). What is internationalization testing?

It is another name for globalization testing where a particular application is adaptable to multiple languages and regions without making any modifications.

Q93). How will you define the Installation testing?

It is used to check either software is installed properly and working as expected.

Q94). How will you define the localization testing?

It is a process for adapting globalization software for a particular language or region with the addition of local specific components.

Q95). How will you define Formal testing?

It is a process for testing an application on the basis of pre-defined procedures and proper documentation.

Q96). How will you define compatibility testing?

It is used to check whether an application is working as expected in compliance with different environmental components.

Q97). How will you define risk-based testing?

It is used to check and identify several modules that may cause failures when testing specific functionalities.

Q98). How will you define Monkey testing?

It is used to apply abnormal actions on an application deliberately to check its stability.

Q99). How will you define Exploratory testing?

It is performed by the domain expert by exploring functionalities of an application without having proper knowledge of requirements.

Q100). How will you define Security testing?

It is the process for determining whether the system protects data and maintains its functionality as needed.

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In this blog, we have come across a wider list of software tester interview questions that are sufficient to prepare you for the next interview. Along with practicing these questions, it would be great if you can join the QA certification program from JanBask Training and get certified in your favorite testing domain.

A certified candidate with the right skills and knowledge has better chances of getting hired by top MNCs than other candidates. We wish you luck for a successful career in software testing domain ahead!

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