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MySQL vs SQL Server vs Oracle: A Detailed Comparison

Introduction

my sql-oracle-sql server

 

If you are in the field of Information technology and data management, you might be familiar with terms like MySQL, SQL Server, Oracle database, etc. Actually, all of these fall under the category of RDBMS. RDBMS systems are functional database solutions for a wide variety of businesses from several fields and industries. For the uninitiated, an RDBMS is a database management system that uses a relational database model to develop groups of data organized into tables called “Relations.” Regarding selecting the best RDBMS solution for your business, you must compare 3 databases - MySQL vs. SQL Server vs Oracle. Another critical factor in selecting the best RDBMS solution for your business is how your business intends to use the database and the programming software. 

It might add up to the knowledge of those RDBMS systems. You can Upskill your data management through an online SQL training course and shape your career in an ever-widening SQL sector. 

So, let’s begin with understanding the concept of RDBMS first and then gradually shifting to the distinctions on MySQL vs SQL server, SQL vs. oracle, oracle vs MySQL, how to make an informed selection, and more.    

Concept of RDBMS: List of Popular Databases

The Relational Database Management System or RDBMS has become the standard database system since its evolution in the year 1980. A number of industries are using the database for their business operations and to manage voluminous data storage too.

This post discusses the three most popular databases that are Oracle, SQL Server, and MySQL. This comparison will help you understand the history and features of each database on the basis of which you can decide which database you should use and can make your decisions easily. We will also discuss what this database does and how are they implemented?

There are many databases in the market and when it comes to choosing any database for the project then you must know the difference between the popular ones and the top 3 databases of the market that are SQL vs.Oracle vs MySQL. Currently, SQL implementation with ease in RDBMS is like the backbone of the software system.

It was introduced in 1980 and so in this article, as a bonus, we will discuss the evolution of these three databases and their features as well. 

Quick Fact: Did you know as per the 2022 Developer Survey by StackOverflow 45.68% of professional developers use MySQL, 27.88% use Microsoft SQL server followed by Oracle which is used by 11.79%? Here’s a detailed overview in the below image:

Professional Developers

Before we move ahead with an in-depth comparison of Oracle versus MySQL versus Microsoft SQL, let’s get a quick comparison between the three databases in the table below.

A Quick Introduction to Oracle Database

The first database that was designed for grid computing, i.e., enterprise grid computing and data warehousing, was - “Oracle” database. This grid computing offers highly resilient and affordable ways to handle information and applications. Enterprise grid computing uses SQL queries as a language for communicating with the database. In other words, An Oracle is a collection of data processed as a unit, and its aim is to store and retrieve data. 

Evolution of Oracle Database

Firstly, RDBMS was developed by Oracle Corporation in 1980 and it was used for commercial purposes and in the next version it was released for IBM computers. In 2011 Oracle acquired nearly 50% of the RDBMS market as per Gartner. It was the first company that develop commercial-level software or RDBMS to manipulate data by using query language.

Features of Oracle Database

At first, Oracle released Oracle2 which supported only basic SQL features, assembly language was used to write this software. After that, for the next 10 years, Oracle just released updates to this software and each time the new updates were closely related to the market requirement. Therefore, Oracle remains at the top throughout this period.

Oracle versions were scalable, distributed, portable, and programmable. Like when it was released in 1985 to support the client-server model that was as per user expectation and later JVM or Java Virtual Machine was also included to support the digital era. 

Amidst all of this, oracle DBA is in great demand, and to learn about Oracle DBA from scratch, refer to the Oracle DBA tutorial guide for beginners. 

The recent Oracle release (Oracle 19c)  has the following new features:

  • Enhanced data security
  • A new advanced analytics platform
  • Integration support for operating system processor
  • Database consolidation support for data
  • Performance enhancement through advanced network compression
  • A number of application enhancements to Oracle Application Express to develop Web apps by using SQL or PL/SQL
  • Automatic indexing
  • Active Data Guard DML Redirection
  • Automatic Flashback Of Standby
  • Hybrid Partitioned tables
  • Dbca silent mode
  • Auto upgrade For Oracle Database
  • Finer Granularity Supplemental Logging
  • Clear Flashback Logs Periodically
  • Automatic SQL plan Management and more

Evolution of SQL Server Database

Microsoft purchased SQL Server from Sybase and launched in 1990 and released version 7.0 of SQL Server. Initially, they were trying to provide a common platform, but later Microsoft developed its own operating system Windows NT and developed its own database. Initially, Microsoft released version 4.2.

In the year 2000, Microsoft released SQL Server 2000, in which the original Sybase code was replaced entirely. Just like Oracle, Microsoft was also trying to enhance the features of SQL Server to keep up with the current market requirements and changing technology trends. For this purpose, Microsoft launched the SQL Server 2005, which supports XML data. Apart from this, other added features enhanced compression, the support for structured and semi-structured data, and several add-on products to support other marketing products. The latest version of SQL Server is Microsoft SQL Server 2022 which was released on 16 Nov. 2022.

Features of SQL Server Database

The following are the features of the SQL server database

  • Solutions to handle disaster recovery
  • SQL Server Data Tools for business intelligence by various updated versions
  • Support for OLTP or online transaction processing and some embedded features to enhance the sophisticated database's performance.
  • SQL is used for managing relational databases with a tabular structure, making it intuitive and easy to use.
  • Efficiently handles large volumes of data with quick retrieval and manipulation.
  • Vertically scalable by enhancing server capabilities (adding more RAM, SSDs, or CPUs).
  • Allows migration of SQL-based databases across different DBMS vendors with minimal effort.
  • Supports various platforms such as mainframes, PCs, workstations, and handhelds.
  • Uses simple, readable commands like create, select, delete, and update.
  • Allows both interactive and programmatic access to databases using the same SQL statements.
  • Allows changes to database structure even during data access, providing flexibility.
  • Supports distributed applications, allowing client systems to interact with back-end databases.
  • Supports Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) for linking Java applications to SQL databases.

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A Quick introduction to MySQL database

MySQL database is quick, simple to use Relational Database Management System, which is widely used by the majority of businesses irrespective of size. This databases was created, marketed and supported by a Swedish company - MySQL AB.

MySQL database has become highly popular due to several reasons -

  • It was released under an open-source license.
  • In its own right, MySQL is a very strong programming language, which is capable of handling huge datasets of highly expensive and solid database packages.
  • It makes use of the conventional form of SQL language.
  • It supports several OSs and languages, such as PHP, PERL, C, C++, Java, etc.

Evolution of MySQL Database

In comparison to Oracle and SQL Server, MySQL has two other unique aspects: one is that it was not released for commercial use and other is that it is an open source database. It has over 10 million installations as per market reports, it means that it is getting much popular among several businesses. The digital age has given the database a competitive space and it has become popular among developers.

Features of MySQL Database

SQL Server and Oracle database tools are considered the most often used tools by several enterprises. MySQL tool is often used by individuals who develop their own websites and manage their databases. Just like SQL Server and Oracle, MySQL also provides software releases every year.

The original version of MySQL was developed in 1990 and the major changes were done in 2010. The features that were added in MySQL were custom partitioning, semi-synchronous replication, improved support for SMP, and updates to InnoDB I/O subsystems.

A Quick Comparison of Oracle, SQL Server, and MySQL

Managing a database is the most crucial factor when you’ve enormous data to store and operate. This is where Oracle, SQL Server, and MySQL databases come in handy. Worried about which RDBMS to choose for your business? Here’s the side-by-side comparison of major RDBMS solutions[ oracle SQL vs MySQL]: 

In the table above, we have discussed the comparison of MySQL vs Microsoft SQL vs Oracle databases in brief. For a detailed guide, go through the blog and analyze how they are different and suitable for your business operations.

Property

SQL Server

MySQL

ORACLE

Purpose

A Relational database of Microsoft

A Widely used open-source database

Hugely used RDBMS

The Basic Model of Database

RDBMS

RDBMS

RDBMS

Secondary model of Database

Graph DBMS Key-value store Document Store

Key-value store Document store

Graph DBMS Key-value store Document Store RDF store

Website

www.microsoft.com/en-us/sql-server

www.mysql.com

www.oracle.com/database/index.html

Developer

Microsoft

Oracle

Oracle

Initial Release Year

1989

1995

1980

License

Commercial

Open Source

Commercial

Cloud Support

No

No

No

Implementation Language

C++

C and C++

C and C++

Data Scheme

Yes

Yes

Yes

Pros

Works well with other Microsoft products

Can now run on Linux

Feature-rich Developer edition is free

Relatively simple backup and recovery processes

On-premises and cloud database support.

Forecasted release schedule

Out-of-the-box security features

Performance, availability, and scalability

Integration with on-prem and cloud deployments

Supported on many platforms

Available for free

Large user base/Industry standard for web-based applications

Supported on almost every platform

Cons

Could be expensive for enterprise functionalities

Its complicated to handle T-SQL program error 

Several functionalities need extra licenses that adds to the total costs

Oracle experts  are costly

Not as feature-packed as other database solutions for unstructured data

Limited functionalities for complicated business logic

Provides greater steadiness and performance in highly synchronized processes

Things You Need-to-Know

License:

Proprietary

Languages Supported:
PHP, Java, Ruby, Visual Basic, .NET, Python

OS:
Windows

License:

Proprietary

Languages Supported:
C, C#, C++, Objective C, Java, Ruby, Python, COBOL, .NET, Visual Basic 

OS:
Linux (Oracle, Redhat, SUSE, NeoKylin, IBM System Z), AIX, HP-UX, Windows, Solaris

License:

Open-Source

Languages Supported:
C, C#, C++, Objective C, D, Ruby, Java

OS:
Linux (Oracle, Redhat, CentOS), Solaris, Ubuntu, SUSE, Debian, Windows, MacOS, FreeBSD

In the table above, we have discussed the comparison of MySQL vs Microsoft SQL vs Oracle databases in brief. For a detailed guide, go through the entire blog where we’ll help you analyze how they are different and suitable for your business operations.

However, to effectively understand the distinctive features of these RDBMSes you need to have a clear fundamental concept about each database. So let’s help you with a brief overview of Oracle, MS SQL, and MySQL databases for a targeted understanding.

Oracle vs. SQL Server vs. MySQL – Comparison

You’ve already learned about the distinctive features of the three databases that were pointed out at the beginning of the blog in a table. However, as we’ve promised, let’s help you with a detailed comparison. Now we’ll delve into some other points based on which we can compare these three databases elaborately. They are listed below:

  • In all three databases, a typing feature is available and they support XML and secondary indexes.
  • The common APIs for each of the databases are ADO.NET, JDBC, and ODBC. While SQL Server also supports OLE DB and TDS, and Oracle also supports ODP.NET and OCI, SQL datatypes.
  • The list of a supported programming language is long for Oracle, and includes Delphi, Lisp, Java, C++, C#, Ruby, PHP, Visual Basic, and JavaScript they are also supported by MySQL and SQL Server. Oracle also supports many other programming languages that are not supported by the rest of the two databases these are Scala, Fortran, and other languages.
  • For server-side scripting, SQL Server uses transact SQL and >NET, while Oracle uses PL/SQL languages.
  • Triggers are available in all of the three databases
  • All of them support concurrency, durability, in-memory capability, and foreign key concepts
  • As far as transaction concepts are concerned, then they support ACID properties.
  • For replication strategy in Oracle and MySQL, you can have Master-master and Master-slave replications, while in SQL Server it depends on its edition.

Apart from this, there are three other factors on the basis of which we can compare this database. They are the language that is used by them as the main feature of any RDBMS is the language that it uses to execute queries and how it impacts the database performance. Although all three databases use SQL or structured query language, SQL Server also uses T-SQL which is developed by Sybase and is an extension of SQL, while Oracle uses PL/SQL or procedural programming language.

Both languages have different syntaxes and capabilities. The main difference between these languages lies in the way they handle stored procedures, variables, and built-in functions. In Oracle PL/SQL the procedures can also be grouped together into packages that cannot be done in SQL Server, it can be therefore a bit more complex and much more powerful, while T-SQL is quite easier to implement. On the other hand, MySQL vs Oracle uses the light version of T-SQL and a combination of procedural languages.

Another factor or feature for which we can compare these databases is transaction control. A transaction is basically a set or group of more than one instruction that is executed altogether as a single unit. SQL Server and Oracle differ majorly here, in SQL Server each command is committed and executed individually and can’t be rolled back if any error comes. For statement grouping, you can use the “BEGIN TRANSACTION” command, and to commit, you can use the "COMMIT" command. A ROLLBACK command is used to discard any change that is done in the transaction block.

In Oracle, each new connection of the database is treated like a new transaction. For all queries and command execution, the changes are made only in memory that remains in the cache. Without any explicit COMMIT statement, nothing is committed. The changes made in the database remain in the cache and are initially made in memory. When a COMMIT is performed then just by a new instruction, a new transaction is started. In this way, a greater transaction feature is offered to the developers, and error control can also be done easily.

In the case of MySQL, transactions are handled by InnoDB. It is a storage engine and by default is available in MySQL. It also provides ACID-complaint features like foreign key support and transaction handling.

A Quick Comparison Between Oracle SQL vs MySQL

Oracle SQL vs MySQL are two of the most popular RDBMS systems that are utilized in businesses of different businesses even though Oracle supports both of these database systems, who have a lot of similarities as well as dissimilarities. 

In the following section, we’re going to compare Oracle SQL vs MySQL depending on different factors quickly.

Now that you’ve understood the difference between MySQL vs Oracle, let’s move to the next section - 

A quick Comparison Between Oracle sql vs Mysql

Now that you’ve understood the difference between MySQL vs Oracle, let’s move to the next section -

A Quick Comparison between MySQL vs MS SQL

MySQL and MS SQL both are mostly popular and extensively utilised DBMS systems. MS SQL is well-known in the open source community, website development, and CMSs, whereas MS SQL server is well-known in the Microsoft surrounding and corporate level apps. 

In this section, we’re going to quickly compare MySQL vs MS SQL based on commands: 

Factors - My sql Server vs My SQL

MySQL or SQL Server: Which Best Suits our Need?

After this comprehensive MS SQL vs MySQL and Oracle Database comparison, are you still confused about which database should you choose? The right answer still remains, "It depends on your needs" Here's a concise summary to help you decide:

  • If your environment is Linux-based and you're already using the LAMP stack, MySQL will integrate seamlessly.
  • If your environment is Windows-based and utilizes .NET and other Microsoft technologies, SQL Server is the logical choice.
  • If you're looking for a robust, enterprise-level solution with extensive features and scalability, Oracle Database is an excellent option.

For those starting from scratch, SQL Server has a slight edge. Microsoft's growing influence in the cloud with Azure, its support for open-source, and ecosystems like Linux makes it a strong contender. Additionally, SQL Server boasts a superior toolset and better performance in many cases.

Ultimately, whether you choose MySQL, SQL Server, or Oracle, your database needs to integrate smoothly with your overall IT infrastructure. Specifically, you'll need an API layer to connect your database to the front-end user interface.

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Final Words

This comparison shows how close these three databases are in terms of features and properties. Depending on your requirements and situation, you can use the one that suits you more. Every database has some beneficial features that may be used by enterprises and can be helpful for them as well. These features are not a small one; they can also enhance the database performance.

If you need any assistance, feel free to contact JanBask’s online SQL training experts today!

FAQs

Q1. What is the major difference between Oracle SQL and MySQL?

Ans:- My SQL database system doesn’t support data partitioning at the same time its only compatible with static systems. Whereas, Oracle SQL is developed as a large scale DBMS solution that supports huge amounts of data. It also supports data partitioning and can work with static as well as dynamic systems. 

Q2. Can I use MySQL in Oracle database?

Ans:-  Both MySQL and Oracle Databases are favourable for different use cases.

Q3. What languages are supported by MySQL?

Ans:-  MySQL supports multiple programming languages like Java, PHP, C++, Python, Ruby, Visual Basic, Delphi, Go and R. It also additionally supports other languages such as Perl, Scheme, Tcl, Haskel and Eiffel.

Q4. Does Oracle SQL and MySQL have same syntax?

Ans:-  Often, the syntaxes used for creating a new database schema is similar for MySQL as well as Oracle databases. 

Q5. Is MySQL open source or Oracle?

Ans:-  MySQL is open source and its possible to change the source code according to your business needs. 

Q6. What are the main categories of SQL commands ?

Ans:-  The SQL commands are primarily divided into five categories as follows:

  • DDL – Data Definition Language.
  • DQL – Data Query Language.
  • DML – Data Manipulation Language.
  • DCL – Data Control Language.
  • TCL – Transaction Control Language.

Q7. Is MySQL a tool or language?

Ans:- MySQL as well as SQL are programming languages that are related to database. SQL programming language is mostly utilized for working with data in relational databases whereas, MySQL is an open source DBMS product that deploys SQL standards. 

Q8. Which platforms are supported by MySQL?

Ans:-  MySQL supports the following platforms:

  • Oracle Linux 8 / Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 / CentOS 8 whose architecture can be x86_64, ARM 64.
  • Oracle Linux 7 / Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 / CentOS 7 whose architecture can be ARM 64.
  • Oracle Linux 7 / Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 / CentOS 7 whose architecture can be x86_64.

Q9. What table type is supported by MySQL?

Ans:-  MySQL Version 3.23. 6, lets you select between 3 fundamental table formats: ISAM, HEAP, and MyISAM. Whereas, the newer MySQL versions might support additional table types such as InnoDB, or BDB, based on the way you compile it. 

Q10.  What type of storage is MySQL?

Ans:- MySQL supports several storage engines that performs like a data handler for various data types, facilitating users to select how data can be stored and processed in a database. Here are the 3 groups of MySQL storage engines - memory (Memory), disk (MyISAM, InnoDB), and network (NDBcluster).

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