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DDL, DML, DCL, TCL & DQL -- The Complete SQL Commands Tutorial


In the era of technology defined by cloud computing & data science, features are evolving at the blinding speed of continuous deployment. One such evolution is SQL. As of the latest data, SQL is among the top 3 most popular database management systems (DBMS) in the world. 

With data generated in enormous quantities, there is an ongoing need to process data in databases. Relational databases are among the most popular databases, and SQL is the basis for relational databases. That's why SQL skills are absolutely essential in most job roles. 

This blog on SQL Commands will discuss the top commands and statements you need to understand in SQL. Much depends on the certification you hold, so give a jump start to your Cloud professional career by enrolling yourself in comprehensive SQL training online, today! 

The Topics Covered In This Blog Are:

  • What is SQL & its Features
  • Top 4 SQL Commands with Examples(SQL DDL, DML, DCL, and TCL)
  • SQL Skills in Demand
  • The Future of SQL Databases

Let's Begin!

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Why is SQL Critical?

SQL is the structured query language used to store, manipulate, and extract data in a database server. MySQL is a relational database management system. It supports large databases and can be customized.

SQL commands are instructions that are used to communicate with the database. It is used for carrying out specific tasks, jobs, and functions with data in the database. Therefore, SQL and Python/java are not competing. Python and Java have developed Excel in various areas, but both are versatile languages, whereas SQL operates from relational databases. 


Features of SQL

SQL will help you to communicate with the database by commands. Here are some of the top features of SQL Database:

  • It enables users to extract data from the relationship database. 
  • It enables users to set up databases and tables.
  • It can be used to update, insert, delete and edit databases and tables.
  • It provides security and allows you to specify permissions.
  • Allows people to process information in new ways.

Also if you seriously want to become a SQL professional or pursue a career in a similar domain, then the first step is to consider enrolling in certified and industry-recognized Online Data Management Courses

A Glimpse of SQL History

Her, are major landmarks from the SQL history:

  • Dr. Edgar F. "Ted" Codd first introduced the relational model for databases in 1970.
  • Structured Query Language first debuted in 1974.
  • System/R was a product that IBM produced in 1978.
  • A relational database prototype was created by IBM in 1986 and is now standardized by ANSI.
  • 1989 saw the release of SQL's first version, and 1999 saw the release of SQL 3, which included features like triggers and object-orientation.
  • Window features, SQL2003's support for XML, etc.
  • Support for XML Query Language in SQL2006
  • Improved support for temporal databases in SQL2011

Top 5 SQL Commands with Examples

To get a data job in 2022, you are going to need to learn SQL. As with any language and especially when you are a novice, it may be useful to have a list of common SQL commands in one place to refer to whenever you need it — we’d like to be that place for you!

So, below is a comprehensive list of SQL commands with examples:

Data Definition Language (DDL)

A data definition language (SQL DDL) is a computing language used to create and change the structure of database objects in a database. These database objects include tables, indexes, views, schemas, etc.

The SQL DDL is also known as the data description language in certain contexts because it describes fields and records in a database table. These commands are normally not used by a general user, who should be accessing the database via an application.So, let’s learn about SQL DDL commands with syntax.

Five types of DDL commands in SQL are:

  • Create the database or its objects using the CREATE command (like table, index, function, views, store procedure, and triggers).
  • Use the DROP command to remove objects from the database.
  • ALTER: This is used to change the database's structure.
  • TRUNCATE is one of the most important DDL commands in SQL, TRUNCATE eliminates all records from a table, as well as any spaces set aside for the records.
  • COMMEND: This is employed to include comments in the data dictionary.
  • If you are wondering how much does a SQL Developer make? The national average salary for a SQL Developer is $88,938 in the United States. Gain more insight on SQL developer salary here.

CREATE Command

It’s a DDL command used to create databases, tables, triggers, and other database objects

DROP Command

This DDL SQL command is used to delete objects such as a table, index, or view. A DROP statement cannot be canceled, so once an object is destroyed, it is impossible to get it back.

These are some of the top SQL commands that you have just learned. But, if you are seriously looking to increase your domain knowledge, check out this comprehensive SQL Career Path.

ALTER Command

ALTER is a DDL SQL command that changes or modifies the existing database structure and also modifies the schema of the database objects.

It is also possible to add and remove constraints from the table with the ALTER command.


TRUNCATE is another DDL command which deletes or removes all records in the table. This command also removes the space allotted to store table records.

RENAME Command

RENAME is a DDL command that is used to change the database table name.

Before moving ahead, evaluate your skills with this easy 2 mins SQL Quiz now!

Also, if you are looking to master the concepts and nuances of a variety of MSBI Interview Questions and Answers -all compiled in one place. Go through our guide and ace your preparation!

Data Manipulation Language (DML

The DML SQL commands change the data present in the SQL database. We can easily access, store, change, update and remove existing folders from the database using DML commands like SELECT INSERT INTO DELETE UPDATE. It is the component of the SQL statement that controls access to data and to the database. Basically, DCL statements are grouped with DML statements.

Here are some SQL commands that come under DML:

  • Data are inserted into tables using INSERT.
  • A table's existing data is updated using UPDATE.
  • Delete records from a database table using the DELETE command.
  • LOCK: Concurrency under table management.
  • CALL: Call a Java or PL/SQL subprogram.
  • EXPLAIN PLAN: It outlines the data access route.

Also, join our professional JanBask SQL Community to connect with industry experts and professionals.

SELECT Command

This DML instruction is used to select data from a database, and the returned data is stored in a result table, known as the result set.


INSERT is another major DML command in the SQL, which allows users to insert data into database tables.

DELETE Command

DELETE is a DML SQL command that enables users to delete one or more existing records in database tables. However, this command of Data Manipulation Language does not delete the stored data permanently from the database.

UPDATE Command

This DML SQL command is used to update or modify the value of a column in the table.

SQL is a big domain, hence if you don't want to limit your learnings. Then, learn the basics of SQL in our Comprehensive Guide on SQL.

Data Control Language

These SQL commands are used to grant and take back authority from any database user. In the database, this language does not have the feature of rollback. It is the simplest of three commands, which allows control access to information stored on a database and supplements DML and DDL SQL effectively. 

Commands that come under DCL:

  • GRANT: This command is used to provide users access privileges to the database.
  • REVOKE: It helps withdraw the access privileges of users given by using the GRANT command.

Grant Command

This is one of the most important DCL commands that is used to give user access privileges to a database.

Revoke Command

Among the two DCL commands, revoke is useful in backing permissions from the user.

Also, if you are a beginner, looking to start your career in SQL. Check out how to become SQL Developer?


Transaction Control Language

TCL is one of the most used SQL commands.  These commands are used to keep the database consistent and for transaction management made by the DML commands. 

A transaction is a set of SQL queries carried out on data stored in DBMS. Each time a transaction is made these transactions happen temporarily in the database, to make the changes permanent, we use TCL commands. 

The TCL Commands Are:  

  • COMMIT: Commits a Transaction.
  • ROLLBACK: It is used to rollbacks a transaction if any error occurs.
  • SAVEPOINT: It is used to set a save point within a transaction.
  • SET TRANSACTION: This command specifies characteristics for the transaction.

Commit Command

This command is used to save all the transactions to the database. Each time we perform one of the DDL commands like -INSERT, DELETE or UPDATE, they may be canceled if the data is not stored permanently. So to be on the safer side COMMIT command is used. 

SQL commands are not just limited to Business applications. It has a wide range of applications in the Data Science world. So, step ahead of your competition with Data Science Courses.

Rollback Command

This command is used to recover data or restore data to the last backup point or validated state. If for some reason the entered, deleted or updated data is not correct, you can return the data to a particular savepoint or if the savepoint is not done, then you can roll back to the last committed state.


This command is used to store data at a particular point temporarily so that whenever necessary can be rolled back at that particular point. 

Tip: Are you a fresher (intermediate or experienced) in RDBMS technologies? If yes, then you can check out our Top 100 RDBMS Interview questions and answers which can help you to crack your next RDBMS interview.

Data Query Language

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DQL is one of the finest SQL commands that is used to fetch the data from the database. The goal of DQL commands is to obtain the schema relationship based on the request that is passed to it. While often referred to as part of DML, the SQL SELECT statement is strictly an example of DQL.

DQL uses only one command:

SELECT: It is used to retrieve data from the database.

It uses only one command:


SELECT Command

This DQL command helps you to select the attribute based on the condition described by the WHERE clause.

Most In-demand SQL Skills of 2022

Most organizations are looking for professionals in SQL skills. Some of the SQL skills sought are:

  • Database structures
  • Creating a database with SQL
  • MySQL and PostgreSQL
  • Master PHP
  • SQL statements and clauses
  • SQL database management


Further if you are looking to accelerate your career in SQL.  Enhance your career prospects by learning SQL from the scratch, and effectively managing and querying data.  Also, don't forget to enroll yourself in exclusive programs designed by JanBask Training to boost your career & clear the above certification exams comprehensively.

What’s the Future of SQL & its Databases?

SQL is a massive technology. The future scope of being an SQL Developer is not just limited to Computer Science, but you can see it revolving around Retail, Finance, Healthcare, Science & Technology, Public Sector, in short everywhere.

Over the years, SQL has had a strong position on databases. SQL databases could be progressively phased out to more distributed models in the future, with NoSQL and Hadoop competing for first place. 

According to Stack Overflow Developer’s survey, SQL is the second most commonly used programming language, used by 50% of all developers and beaten only by JavaScript – a language twice as old as SQL. Hence, SQL databases have a lot of scope in the future

If you are wondering how much does a SQL Developer make? The national average salary for a SQL Developer is $88,938 in the United States. Gain more insight on SQL developer salary here. 


Understanding important SQL commands like DDL SQL, DML is essential to understanding databases on how to use and manipulate the dataset. SQL commands help us with a variety of functions that include writing, updating, editing, and deleting table data

Now that you are familiar with SQL commands, it is time for you to start querying and manipulating these updated and existing data sets. This is a critical step in moving forward on your journey to becoming a SQL expert. If you liked this article, and want to get certified, check out SQL Server Training & Certification program at JanBask Training and master all SQL server concepts in detail to use them in the workplace. Also, join our professional JanBask SQL Community to connect with industry experts and professionals.

If you have questions for us? Feel free to contact us or leave your queries in the comments section, and we’ll have our experts in the field answer them for you!

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Q1. What are some of the drawbacks of using SQL?

SQL has an intricate user interface that makes it difficult for some people to use when working with databases.  Because some versions are costly and programmers find it hard to use them. Having said that, SQL commands provide great flexibility to programmers and enhance their productivity.

Q2. How long does it take to become proficient in SQL?

An average learner should be able to understand the basic ideas of SQL and start working with SQL databases within 2-3 weeks. However, you will need to become competent enough to use them successfully in real environments, and this takes time. You can learn SQL in a few weeks if you understand programming and get a grasp of SQL commands. 

Q3. How is MySQL different from SQL?

MySQL is a free database, and SQL is a language to search databases. MySQL is an RDBMS that enables users to organize data in a database. SQL is used to access, update and maintain data in a database, whereas MySQL is an RDBMS that allows users to access, update and maintain data. 

Q4. Which attributes favor SQL for Data Science?

There are several features in SQL that make it suitable for detailed interpretation and analysis after data mining in data science. 

  • This is an easy tool with a set of commands and data types that, when understood, becomes easy to operate. 
  • In addition to the facility of operation, the SQL platform offers security to your data. MySQL has a strong data security layer that takes into consideration the sensitivity and confidentiality of your data.

Q5. Is it possible for people with no coding background to get trained in SQL DBA certification courses?

There is nothing impossible in this world. The training for individuals with no background in coding may get a little challenging, but the silver lining here is that. Our SQL DBA course starts from the very basics of everything. It will require a little more effort on your part if you are not from a technical background, but with the help of our assistance team and the instructors, you will get there.

Q6. What type of assistance is given for SQL DBA certification exams?

Our online SQL DBA training module has been prepared in such a way that it helps the student to clear the certifications with the help of the SQL course material & expertise of the trainer as he is certified in his respective domain. Our SQL DBA Course has been designed by a panel of industry experts after aggressive market research, on technology, exam patterns, Industry Requirements, etc., the same then blended into an amazing SQL DBA curriculum.

Q7. What are the Skills that I will learn in SQL Server DBA training?

The database administration skills are easy to master with the right online SQL certification training. With our SQL DBA training program, you will get deep knowledge of various concepts like SQL basics, SQL versions, installing or configuring SQL, SQL server development, DBA components, database administration, DBA job roles, need for DBA, DBA jobs, etc. You will know the basics of indexes and query tuning. Also, by the end of SQL DBA training online, you will get various hands-on assignments and projects to gain practical knowledge of different concepts. 

Q8. What is all covered in SQL DBA for Beginners?

  • The SQL DBA training online begins with the introduction and basic concepts that are necessary to learn to start a career in SQL.
  • SQL DBA training not only focuses on theoretical concepts online but practical knowledge is also given for a deep understanding of the concepts.
  • Once the beginners’ level is cleared successfully, you can move ahead with the advanced SQL learning.
  • Beginner's level will introduce you to the SQL Server, and SQL DBA job roles and duties.

Q9. What all is covered in Advanced SQL DBA training?

  • Hands-on experience with various SQL technologies that are necessary to learn to become a successful DBA expert.
  • Apart from Live classes, access to recorded classes, PPTs, and other important study material is also given for learning retention.
  • Once you are completed with the SQL DBA training program online, you can apply for various certifications and get shortlisted by top IT Companies to grab your dream job as a Database Administrator immediately.

Q10. What are the common job responsibilities of a SQL DBA?

The typical Job Responsibilities of a database administrator are-

  • Go over the query performance and optimize the code.
  • Writing the queries required for front-end applications such as websites, various desktop applications, or several cloud apps.
  • Planning and coding the database tables to store the application’s data.
  • Data modeling to envisage the database structure.
  • Functioning with application developers to be able to create optimized queries.

Q11. What is DDL DML DCL stands for?

Below is the list of full forms of DDL DML DCL -: 

  • DDL – Data Definition Language
  • DML – Data Manipulation Language
  • DCL – Data Control Language.

Q12. What is the use of DDL and DML?

Following are the usage of DDL and DML:

DDL is used to create databases, schema, constraints, users, tables and many more. 

 DML is used to insert, update or delete the records.

Q13. What is the difference between DML and DDL?

 DML statements only affect a single document whereas DDL commands can affect the whole database or table. 


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