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Top 5 Python Automation Testing Frameworks to Practice in 2020



Introduction to Automation Testing Framework Python

Python has been voted as the best programming language in 2018 and still continues rising up in the IT industry and ranked among the top 5 programming languages just after Java. The increased usage of this programming language has also increased the popularity of testing frameworks based on Python. Even experienced programmers work around a lot when they have to choose the best framework for automation testing in Python. 

A developer has to check many things and also the scripting quality of the tool. It should be easy in use and test case designing should be simpler. The blog is a researched effort to help you compare the top 5 python automation testing frameworks and take a look at the pros and cons of each framework. So, you could choose the ideal Python automation testing framework as per the project needs.

Top 5 Python Automation Testing Frameworks

Robot Framework (RF)

Performing automation testing with Python has become a trend these days. One such popular Python automation testing framework is Robot Testing Framework. Although it is developed in Python yet it can be used for dotnet based or Java-based apps too. The best thing is that this testing automation testing framework Python is compatible across multiple operating systems like MacOS, Linux, or Windows, etc.

Automation testing using Python:  RF Prerequisites

  • The automation testing using Python Robot Framework is possible only when you have Python 2.7.14 version or the later version installed. 
  • You must also install ‘pip’ or Python Package Manager to use Robot Framework in Python.
  • Lastly, you need a development framework where you can execute code snippets. Also, you can opt for a Python IDE for easy code development.

Learn Python for Automation Testing: Pros & Cons

Moving ahead, let us see what are the pros and cons of using Robot testing framework when compared to other similar automation testing frameworks.

Automation Testing in Python: RF Pros

  • Robot Framework can make the automation process easier for testers by creating readable test cases.
  • It is easy to work on test data syntax as needed.
  • The tool contains a set of test libraries that can be utilized for different projects as required.
  • It is considered as an extensible framework because of plenty of APIs availability.
  • The tool can be used for running multiple tests in parallel with the help of Selenium Grid. Selenium Grid is a wonderful automation testing tool with multiple features and benefits.

Automation Testing in Python: RF Cons

  • RF automation testing in Python seems easy still it is tricky when you have to perform customizations. However, customizing small reports using the Robot Framework is easy.
  • Another drawback of the tool is inconsistency in parallel testing.

Why choose Robot Automation Testing Framework Python?

If you are looking to perform the automation testing then you need less experience in development and it is quite easy to use when compared to other testing frameworks. The tool has rich in-built libraries that can be utilized for different types of projects. If you need a complex automation testing framework Python then you should prefer Pytest that we will discuss in the next section.

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Pytest

It is again an important tool in the list for automation testing. It can be used to perform different types of QA testing. It is an open-source automation testing framework that can be learned quickly and frequently used by testing teams and developers worldwide. When you will research the tool, it is preferred by the biggest IT companies for international projects. Let us see some of the prerequisites, pros, and cons of the tool.

Automation Testing in Python: Pytest Prerequisites

If you have the working knowledge of the Pytest tool then you don’t have to know anything complex. All you need is a working desktop with a command-line interface, PIP (Python Package Manager), and a development Python IDE.

Automation Testing in Python: Pros of Pytest

  • Using Pytest, you may write test cases quickly like never before.
  • Pytest allows you to write test cases that can store multiple values together and inform you about the execution failure too.
  • It is easy to understand test cases written using Pytest testing framework
  • The tool allows modular programming where the same parameters can be used multiple times without writing them again and again.
  • There are some useful plugins also attached to the tool to execute the parallel testing by eliminating the duplicity in code.
  • It is easy to write simple routines that are less prone to errors, shorter and can be understood quickly.

Automation Testing in Python: Cons of Pytest

Sometimes, you have to compromise on compatibility while using the Pytest automation testing framework. It is convenient to write test cases but they cannot be used with any other testing framework.

Why choose Pytest Automation Testing Framework Python?

The best part is that you don’t have to learn any programming language in detail but only a basic understanding is enough. It can support multiple IDEs and helps to write powerful test cases too. If your aim is using a simple framework then go for the Robot Framework. If you want to execute some complex projects then it is better opting Pytest automation testing frameworks. Also, you can run test cases using Selenium WebDriver when needed.

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UnitTest / PyUnit

It is again a standard automation testing framework for the unit testing as the name suggests. It is very much similar to Junit. The tool contains several routines, clean-up methods, setup classes, and more. The name of each class and routine in PyUnit starts with the “test” keyword. it allows them to execute as test cases. You can also utilize load methods and test suites further for grouping or loading tests. Also, the tool can be used to customize the load runner. Also, it makes it easy to write general XML reports.

Automation Testing using Python: UnitTest Prerequisites

There are no more special requirements to use this tool as it comes with Python by default. the only condition is that you must know Python basics to use this tool. For utilizing any other additional modules, pip must be installed on your system with a Python IDE.

Automation Testing using Python: Pros of PyUnit

  • The best part is that there is no need for extra modules installation as it is available with a box. 
  • The working principle of the Unit Test is highly similar to the X-Unit frameworks. Anyone with a strong background in Python can quickly start with the tool
  • The tool allows running test cases in a simple way by specifying the name of the terminal. Also, the output is concise that makes the tool more flexible than usual.
  • It is easy to generate test reports within milliseconds.

Automation Testing using Python: Cons of PyUnit

  • The tool is inspired completely by the Junit. So, you may get confused between the two while using the tool.
  • Sometimes, it is not easy to understand test cases since it supports the abstraction completely.
  • A huge amount of boilerplate code is required.

Why choose PyUnit Automation Testing Framework Python?

The tool allows testers and developers to write more precise code in a compact manner. Although it comes with a default testing framework, still naming conventions and working principle is different when compared to standard Python code snippets. 

Behave

Behave is the latest agile-based development methodology that encourages developers, analysts, testers, and quality experts to communicate together effectively. Also, it allows executing BDD test cases without any difficulties. Further, test cases can be written using a simple programming language that is easy to understand by anyone. Also, you can use behavior specifications and steps later when needed.

Automation Testing with Python: Behave Prerequisites

  • Anyone with the basic knowledge of Python can quickly use the Behave testing tool.
  • The installation of Behave is possible only when you have Python 2.7.14 version or the later version installed. 
  • You must also install ‘pip’ or Python Package Manager to use Robot Framework in Python.
  • Lastly, you need a development framework where you can execute code snippets. Also, you can opt for a Python IDE for easy code development.

Like all other QA testing tools and frameworks, behave also has some benefits and drawbacks associate with it. Let us discuss them in detail below.

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Automation Testing with Python: Pros of Behave

  • The code of the tool is written in semi-formal language that is easy to learn and understand by everyone.
  • The development team can work on different testing modules consistently having similar features or specs.
  • The building blocks of the tool are ready to work on all types of test cases.
  • The thinking and reasoning capabilities are featured in detail for better product specs.
  • Stakeholders will get a clear picture of requirements because of the similar format of specifications.

Automation Testing with Python: Cons of Behave 

The only drawback of using the Behave testing tool is that it does perform well with the black-box testing.

Why choose Behave Automation Testing Framework Python?

Well, we have already discussed that the Behave testing tool performs well for the black-box testing only. It is an advantageous tool as use cases can be given in much simpler language. However, for integration or unit testing, behave testing framework is not considered optimum and it may cause complications as well.

Lettuce

Lettuce is again a powerful automation testing framework or behavior-driven tool based on Python and Cucumber programming language. The major objective of using this tool is to focus on common tasks for behavior development to make the process a bit simpler and entertaining.

Learn Python for Automation Testing: Lettuce Prerequisites

The installation of Lettuce is possible only when you have Python 2.7.14 version or the later version installed. You must also install ‘pip’ or Python Package Manager to use Lettuce in Python. Lastly, you need a development framework where you can execute code snippets. Also, you can opt for a Python IDE for easy code development.

Learn Python for Automation Testing: Pros of Lettuce

  • The tool helps tester or developers to create multiple scenarios together and describe the features of the tool using a simple natural language.
  • Developers and testers can quickly communicate together because of a similar format and the specs.
  • In the case of the black-box testing, Lettuce is just an amazing choice for writing behavior-driven test cases.

Learn Python for Automation Testing: Cons of Lettuce

The only drawback is that if you want to execute test cases successfully then the coordination among developers and testers is vital. If there is a gap among different department then the project may fail later.

Why choose Lettuce Automation Testing Framework Python?

The tool contains all major benefits that were delivered by the Cucumber platform. IT is good for executing BDD test cases, black-box testing, and more. It is easy to use; code is easy to understand and implement. Also, the code snippets can be written in a compact way.Getting started with Automation Testing using Python 

Let us start with the first Python project to learn how to execute the automation testing in Python. For this purpose, you must install and download Python on your system first.

In the next step, you must install the PIP on your system for getting started. PIP or Python Package Manager is vital to install for maintaining the workflow. Here is the command for using the PIP on your system.

Here, we are using the Pytest tool for this particular example. So, the installation of the Pytest tool is necessary at this stage.

By default, all test cases are stored under Tests directory for quick maintenance. Let us follow the same convention for your reference.

Now create the Python module for your first project using the following code:

When you are using the Pytest testing framework, it typically does not require much code. Test cases are usually written as functions, not classes. Let us see how to run the Pytest code in the next step.

With the example, our first test passed! What should you do if a test fails to execute? Here is the code example for the same.

Now, when we are using the Pytest tool, we see this code:

Here is the code on how to fix this bug:

Let us again run these tests to see the outcome:

So, we are back on the track and execution is completed successfully with this execution. All the best and try this code to execute automation testing perfectly with the help of the Pytest tool.

What’s Next?

In this blog “Python for Automation Testing”, we have discussed the top 5 Python automation testing frameworks that can be frequently used by developers and testers. They are suitable for different types of QA testing and you can pick any one of them as per your project requirements. For beginners, Robot Framework is a great tool to start automation testing. At the complex level, Pytest or UnitTest tools can be used. For behavior-driven testing, Behave or Lettuce testing frameworks are used. To learn python for automation testing, you must go through the blog and also join online training classes to give new wings to your career.


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