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Top 10 Python Libraries For Machine Learning

Python is a widely used general purpose programming language today. When it comes to handling data science tasks or challenges, Python never ceases to surprise its users. Data scientists leverage the power of Python programming language daily. It is easy to learn python, easy to debug, used everywhere, object-oriented, open-source, and a high-performance language.

Python has a set of inbuilt extraordinary Python libraries that are widely used by programmers to solve data science or machine learning-related tasks. Python libraries are the major reason that makes it popular among programmers worldwide.

The simplicity of programming language has attracted developers to create more libraries for machine learning and data science. Due to a vast collection of Python libraries, it has become immensely popular among data scientists and machine learning experts.

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Introduction of Python Libraries

The module is a file with some Python code and a package is a directory for modules or sub packages. There is only a minor difference between a package and a Python library, and it is quite blurred. A Python library is a reusable chunk of code that you can include into your projects. When compared to other programming languages like C or C++, Python libraries don’t pertain to a specific context in Python. A python library defines a collection of core modules. A package is a library that can be installed using package managers.

Python Libraries

Python Standard Library

The Python Standard Library is a collection of tokens, syntax, or semantics in Python. It is bundled with core Python distribution and written in C programming language. It handles the core functionalities of core modules in Python. There are more than 200 core modules at the heart of the Python standard library. In addition to this, you may also access a growing collection of thousands of components from the Python Package Index.

Top 10 Python Libraries for Machine Learning & Data Science

1). TensorFlow Python Library

It is a library for numeric computations to high precision with around 35K comments and a vibrant community of more than 1500 contributors. It is popular across all scientific fields. TensorFlow in simple terms can be defined as the framework to define or run computations that include tensors and eventually produce a value.

If you have worked on a machine learning project recently, then you must have heard of this library that was developed by Google in collaboration with Brain Team. It is utilized by almost every machine learning application released by Google.

TensorFlow is like a computational library for writing new algorithms that involve plenty of tensor operators. Further, neural networks can also be expressed as computational graphs and can be implemented by TensorFlow Python library. Additionally, Tensors are N-dimensional matrices that represent your data.

Features of TensorFlow:

It is a Python library optimized for the speed, and it uses techniques that are suitable quick algebra operations. Here are a few features of the library that you must know:

Read: How to Perform Data Wrangling in Python?
  • With TensorFlow, it is possible to visualize every part of the graph carefully that it is not possible with other Python libraries.
  • One of the best features of TensorFlow library is flexibility. It is modular and can be used standalone part if necessary.
  • It can be used on CPU or GPU for distributed computing.
  • It can be used in such a way that multiple neural networks can be used together and more efficiently on large-scale systems.
  • Google develops it with a skilled team of engineers who are continuously working on improvements.
  • It is an open-source library that can be used by anyone with a simple internet connection.

Applications of TensorFlow:

  • It is used with applications like Google Photos, Google Voice Search, etc.
  • Most libraries in TensorFlow are written in C and C++ languages. Today, several applications that are based on TensorFlow are unlimited, and the wider adoption of this library makes it more popular among users.
  • It is used for text-based apps, speech or voice recognition, etc.
  • It is used for time series analysis and video detection too.

2). NumPy Python Library

NumPy means “Numeric Python,” it is a fundamental package for numeric computation in Python and contains multiple n-dimensional array objects. It has more than 18K comments on GitHub and an active community of 700 contributors.  It is a general-purpose library that offers multi-dimensional objects named as arrays or tools to work with them. It also resolves the speed problem with the help of multi-dimensional arrays and provides operators or functions to work efficiently with those arrays.

NumPy is considered as the most popular machine learning Python library available so far. TensorFlow utilizes NumPy to perform multiple operations on Tensors. Array interface is the most important and best feature of NumPy till now.

Features of NumPy:

  • It provides fast and precompiled functions for numeric routines.
  • It is an array-oriented computing library to achieve maximum efficiency.
  • It is based on the object-oriented approach.
  • It is compact and performs faster computations with vectorization.

Applications of NumPy:

  • It is extensively used in data analysis and helps in creating amazing n-dimensional arrays.
  • It is used as the base of other libraries and replacement of MATLAB sometimes.
  • It is utilized for expressing images, sound waves, and other important binary raw streams as an array of real numbers in n-dimension.
  • The machine learning knowledge is necessary to implement this library for full-stack developers.

3). SciPy Python Library

SciPy means “Scientific Python,” it is another open-source and free library extensively used with data science or machine learning projects to perform high-level computations. The library has around 19K comments on GitHub and an active community of 600 contributors. It is good for scientific and technical computations that extends NumPy and provides many user-friendly routines for scientific computations.

Features of SciPy:

  • It has a collection of functions and algorithms built on the NumPy extension.
  • It is a high-level computation platform for data visualization and data manipulation.
  • It is a multi-dimensional image processing platform that includes multiple in-built functions to solve differential equations.

Applications of SciPy:

  • It is used for multi-dimensional image operations.
  • It is used to solve differential equations and Fourier Transformation.
  • It is used for algorithms optimizations and linear algebra.

4). SciKit Python Library

It is a Python library associated with NumPy and SciPy. It is highly utilized for working with complex data. There are a lot of modifications have been made to the library since the time of its inception. One of the highlighting features is cross-validation that provides the ability to use more than one metric. Training methods associated with this Python library are also improved largely.

Features of SciKit:

  • It is used to check the accuracy of supervised models on unseen data.
  • It is used for clustering, factor analysis, principal component analysis, to unsupervised neural networks.
  • It is used to extract features or data from images.

Applications of SciKit:

The library contains a number of algorithms for implementing data science and machine learning tasks like regression, reducing dimensionality, and model selection, etc.

Read: Python Interview Questions and Answers for Beginners and Experienced

5). Pandas Python Library

Pandas mean Python data analysis library that is considered as a must-have requirement in data science. It is highly popular and used worldwide along with NumPy. It has more than 1700 comments on GitHub and 1700 contributors in an active Pandas community. It is majorly used for data cleaning and data analysis. It offers highly flexible data structures that are designed to work with structured data intuitively.

Features of Pandas:

  • It has simple syntax and rich functionalities that allows dealing with missing data effectively.
  • It enables you to create your own function and run it across full data series.
  • It offers high-level abstraction and tools manipulations too.

Applications of Pandas:

  • It is used in general data wrangling and data cleaning.
  • It is used in ETL for data transformation and data extraction. It offers excellent support for loading CSV files into date format.
  • It is used for a variety of commercial and academic areas like statistics, neuroscience, and finance, etc.
  • It offers time-series specific functionality.

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6). Matplotlib Python Library

This library offers powerful visualizations and plotting library for Python. It has 26K comments on GitHub and an active community of 700 contributors. Graphs and plots designed by this Python library extensive used for data visualization. It follows the object-oriented approach to embed those plots into applications.

Features of Matplotlib:

  • It is free and open source library and usually considered as the replacement of MATLAB.
  • It supports plenty of backends and output types. It means it can be used regardless of any operating system you are using currently.
  • It can also be used as wrappers around MATLAB APIs for driving MATLAB as a cleaner.
  • It has low memory consumption, and runtime behavior is just excellent.

Applications of Matplotlib:

  • It is used for correlation analysis of variables.
  • It visualizes more than 95 percent of confidence intervals of the model.
  • It can be used as an outlier detector with the help of a scatter plot.
  • It visualizes data distribution elements to gain meaningful insights.

7). Kera Python Library

Kera is considered one of the most amazing machine learning libraries in Python. It is an easy platform for expressing neural networks. It provides the best utilities for processing datasets, models, visualizations of graphs, etc. in the backend, it can be used as TensorFlow or Theano internally. It is a little slow when compared to other similar Python libraries. It helps in creating a computational graph with the help of a back-end infrastructure that makes it usable to perform operations. Mostly all models in Kera are Portable.

Features of Kera:

  • It runs smoothly on both CPU and GPU.
  • It runs smoothly on GPU and CPU.
  • It supports almost all models in a neural network either it is recurrent, embedded, or fully connected. Further, these models can be combined together to build more powerful complex models.
  • Kera is modular in nature, and it is incredibly expressive, flexible, and suitable for innovative research.
  • Kera is a Python-based framework that makes it easy to debug and explore.

Applications of Kera:

  • It is used at Netflix, Instacart, Yelp, Uber, etc. It is highly popular among start-ups that place deep learning at the core of their products.
  • It can be used for various implementations like neural network building blocks, layers, objectives, activation functions, and a host of tools to work with images and text easier.
  • It offers plenty of pre-processed data sets and pre-trained models like VGG, MNIST, or Inceptions, etc.
  • It is considered popular among deep learning researchers and has been adopted by large scientific organizations worldwide.

8). PyTorch Python Library

It is the largest machine learning library that allows developers to perform tensor computations by creating dynamic computation graphs, calculate gradients automatically, and more. It offers rich application APIs to solve issues related to neural networks.

This machine learning Python library is based on the Torch that is an open source library implemented in the C programming language by Lua. It was introduced in 2017 and gained immense popularity in a short time span only.

Read: Python Learning Path - Future Scope & Career Growth

Features of PyTorch:

  • It is a new hybrid front-end library in eager mode seamlessly transitioning to the graph mode for optimization, speed, and functionality, etc.
  • It can be used to optimize the performance by taking advantage of asynchronous execution and peer-to-peer communication accessible from Python.
  • It is a deeply integrated Python library that can be utilized with popular packages like Numba or Cython, etc.
  • It supports a rich ecosystem of libraries and other tools for supporting development in areas from computer vision to reinforcement learning.

Applications of PyTorch:

  • It is used for applications such as natural processing language.
  • It was primarily developed by Facebook’s AI group, and Uber apps are based on it.
  • It is outperforming TensorFlow in multiple ways and gaining immense popularity in recent days.

9). Light GBM Python Library

It is one of the best machine learning libraries that helps developers in building new algorithms with the helps of redefined elementary models, mainly decision trees. These are special libraries that are designed for fast implementation of models. There are more similar libraries that are used almost for the same purpose.

Features of LightGBM:

  • It is a fast computation platform that ensures high production efficiency.
  • It is user-friendly and a highly intuitive platform.
  • It promises faster learning than many other deep learning libraries.

Applications of LightGBM:

This library provides highly scalable, optimized, and fast implementation of gradient boosting. It is common among full-stack developers because of its flexible algorithms and its benefits.

10). ELI5 Python Library

Mostly the outcome of machine learning model predictions is not accurate, but ELI5 python library helps to overcome this challenge. It debugs all machine learning models and tracks different working steps of an algorithm.

Features of ELI5

It supports other libraries and can be used to perform multiple tasks together with the help of other libraries.

Applications of ELI5

  • It can be used with mathematical apps that requires a lot of computations frequently.
  • It plays a vital role when there are dependencies with other Python packages.
  • It helps in implementing new methodologies in different fields.

Final Words:

I hope these top 10 Python libraries would help you kickstart your learning on the Python libraries. If you want to learn more about Python, you can refer our Python certification program or our blogs on Python. Also, join the demo class before you enroll for the program.

If you have any queries related to our Python program, feel free to contact us. We would love to be a part of this conversation!

Read: Python String Methods - What should you know?

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