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What Is Spring Framework? Spring Tutorial Guide for Beginner

Spring framework was created by Rod Johnson in 2003. It is a modular and complete framework that can be used for every layer of real-time application implementation. In other words, we can say that Spring framework can be used for the development of any of the layers of your application, unlike hibernating and Struts that are used only for database and front-end releases respectively. what is spring This article covers all features of Spring framework and the reasons due to which Spring framework is popular. For beginners, this article information can be helpful in many ways.

Following points are covered in this article:

  1. What is Spring Framework?
  2. Benefits of Spring Framework
    1. Inversion of Control (IoC)
    2. Lightweight
    3. Aspect-Oriented
    4. MVC Framework
    5. Container
    6. JDBC Exception Handling
  3. The Architecture of Spring Framework
    1. Spring AOP
    2. Spring ORM
    3. Spring DAO
    4. Spring Web
    5. Spring Context
    6. Spring Core
    7. Spring Web MVC
  4. Why is Spring Popular?
    1. Simplicity
    2. Testability
    3. Loose Coupling
  5. What are the Examples of Spring?

What is Spring Framework?

Spring framework was launched to address the enterprise-level application complexities. One of the big advantages of Spring framework is its layered architecture and cohesive framework. Due to its layered architecture, you can be selective about the components of the framework that you use for the J2EE application.

What are the Benefits of Spring Framework?

It has the following features or benefits you must know: Benefits of Spring Framework?

1). Inversion of Control (IoC)

Spring provides dependency injection or Inversion of control feature in which programmers need not create objects instead they have to just describe that how it will be created? Moreover, developers or programmers need not to directly connect the application components and services of the program with each other. Here, programmers only have to describe that which component will use which service in an XML file. All components are bound by the Spring framework only.

2). Lightweight

If we talk about transparency and size then Spring is a lightweight framework. Basic Spring framework is just about 1 MB in size and processing overhead of the Spring is not too much.

3). Aspect-Oriented

Aspect-oriented programming is also supported by the Spring. In Aspect-oriented programming paradigm, secondary or supporting functions are isolated from the main business logic of the main program. Crosscutting concerns can be separated in AOP technology that is hard to do in object-oriented programming. In AOP application modularity is increased and its maintenance becomes quite easier.

4). MVC Framework

Spring framework comes with MVC web application that is built on core Spring functionalities. The framework is highly configurable via multiple-view technologies like JSP, iText, Tiles, POI, and Velocity etc. We can also use other frameworks as well along with the Spring framework.

5). Container

Configuration and life cycle of the objects of application is managed by the Spring framework. They are not only managed by Spring but also contained by this framework.

Read: Difference between Array Length vs String Length () Function in Java

6). JDBC Exception Handling

Spring has a specific JDBC abstraction layer and it offers an exception hierarchy that is also a meaningful and simplifies the error handling strategy. As it can be integrated with JDO, Hibernate, and iBATIS, so provides the best integration services too.

Read More: Java String Functions

The Architecture of Spring Framework

Spring is a powerful framework for J2EE applications and the reason behind its success is its architecture. Spring architecture consists of seven modules that are described below: Spring Architecture

1). Spring AOP

One of the key components of Spring framework is AOP and it provides the following functionalities:

  • The user can implement custom aspects through Spring that complements the use of OOP with AOP
  • Declarative enterprise services like declarative transaction management service are also provided by the AOP

2). Spring ORM

ORM package of Spring is connected with database access. ORM has integration layer through which object-relational mapping can be achieved that includes JDO, iBatis, and Hibernate.

3). Spring DAO

DAO or data access object of Spring primarily supports standardizing of data access using the most used technologies like Hibernate, JDO, and JDBC.

4). Spring Web

This component of Spring is the part of Spring web application development stack that includes Spring MVC.

5). Spring Context

Spring context is built on the beans package and supports message source and observer design patterns. It has the ability to obtain resources through a consistent API.

Read: What is Inheritance in Java? Different Types of Inheritance in Java

6). Spring Core

Spring Core component provides dependency injection feature. Through BeanFactory design pattern dependencies like initialization, creation, and object access can be separated from the actual program logic.

7). Spring Web MVC

MVC implementation for the web applications is provided by the MVC module of Spring framework. So, we can say here that Spring has a layered architecture and it provides several advantages to the programmers. Here, we have listed a few of the most seen advantages of the architecture of Spring framework:

  • Middle-tier objects can be effectively organized by the Spring framework
  • Configuration management services of Spring framework can be used by any layer irrespective of the runtime environment
  • Application configuration is handled by the Spring framework consistently and so the user need not use a variety of custom property file formats
  • As it supports interfaces, so provides good programming practices.

Read More: Learn Java OOPs Concept

Why is Spring Popular?

Spring is popular and following three reasons are behind its success. Let’s discuss these points in detail one by one:

1). Simplicity

Due to its non-invasive feature, as it uses POJI and POJO model, it is quite simple in use. POJI and POJO models are:

  • POJI (Plain Old Java Interfaces): It is a Java interface that is not coupled with any framework and any technology.
  • POJO (Plain Old Java Objects): A Java class that is not coupled with any framework and technology

2). Testability

The server is not mandatory to write Spring applications, which is not in the case of EJB and Struts where you may need a server to test the applications. In EJB and Struts if you make even a small change in the application then you may need the server to view those changes. It becomes a time consuming and difficult task. Spring applications are executed in its own container.

3). Loose Coupling

Spring framework has AOP and dependency injection like concepts so are loosely coupled. Due to loose coupling of Spring, dependency is reduced and modularity is increased within the Java code.

Read More: Java Tutorial Guide For Beginners

Read: Java Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced, Fresher Developer

What are the Examples of Spring?

Spring applications can be created in following steps:

  • Create the Bean Class
  • Create an XML file
  • Create the main class
  • Load the jar files
  • Run the program

In the above-listed steps, you can create a Spring application and run it properly. In this way, we can create a Spring application and test and test and use it for our application.

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Wrapping Up!

Core Spring features can be used to develop any Java application. It can be used for any layer of real-time applications. Even any particular layer of the application can also be created by Spring framework. Spring framework is popular due to its leveraging features and is used more than struts and JSF like Java tools. In this article, we have discussed the major reasons why Spring is becoming popular these days.

If you want to become a Java professional then Spring framework must be there in your list as a certified Spring professional cannot only get higher salary package even he can also be able to develop most in-demand Java applications with all latest functionalities. Spring is a fast development framework that can also accommodate UI constraints and provide efficient performance.

Java applications can be created through Spring framework and you can even become a fast-paced developer through this. With every passing day, it is getting popular among Java developers or will stay popular in near future too.


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