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Top 55+ Data Modeling Interview Questions with Answers [2023]


If you are looking for the most essential data modeler interview questions and answers for freshers and experienced, you have reached the right place today. When plenty of technology companies use it worldwide, Data Modeling enjoys a share of 15.43 % in the global market. Indeed, you have the opportunity to move ahead in your career with Data Modeling skills and a set of top Data Model interview questions and answers. If Data Modeling is new to you or you want to know the Data Modeling concept in depth, then join the SQL Server Training & Certification course at JanBask Training to give a new definition to your career.

JanBask Training mentors have prepared a list of frequently asked data model interview questions   that will help you in getting your dream job as a Data Modeling Architect.

Basic Data Modeling Interview Questions

Q1). What is a Data Model?

Ans:-  A Data Model is the conceptual representation of a database's business requirements or physical attributes that help communicate the business requirements with clients.

Q2). How can you define data modeling?

Ans:-  The approach that is used to prepare a data model is called Data Modeling.

Q3). Name the possible type of Data Model.

Ans:-  It could be the physical data model and the logical data model, enterprise data model, conceptual data model, relational data model, OLTP data model, etc.

Q4). What is contained in the physical data model?

Ans:-  A physical data model contains Table, key constraints, columns, unique key, foreign key, default values, indexes, etc.

Q5). What is contained in the logical data model?

Ans:-  A logical data model contains an entity, attributes, primary key, alternate key, Inversion keys, rule, definition, business relation, etc.

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Q6). How will you differentiate physical data models from physical data modeling?

Ans:-  A physical data model contains the physical attributes of a database. The database performance, physical storage, and indexing strategy are essential considerations of a physical data model. The main component here is a database. The approach that is used for creating a physical data model is called physical data modeling.

Q7). How will you differentiate logical data models from logical data modeling?

Ans:- A logical data model is related to the business requirements and is used to implement the data. The approach that is used for creating a logical data model is called logical data modeling.

Q8). How is the physical data model different from the logical data model? 


Logical Data Model

Physical Data Model

1). A logical data model will tell the business requirements logically. 2). A logical data model is responsible for the actual implementation of data stored within a database. 3). A logical data model contains an entity, attributes, primary key, alternate key, Inversion keys, rule, definition, business relation, etc.

1). A physical data model will tell you about the target database source and its properties. 2). A physical data model will tell you how to create a new database model from the existing one and apply the referential integrity. 3). A physical data model contains Table, key constraints, columns, unique key, Foreign Key, default values, indexes, etc.

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Q9). What is an entity (Table)?

Ans:- A database consists of multiple rows and columns, called a table. Further, each column has a specific datatype, and constraints are set for the columns based on conditions.

Q10). What is an attribute (Column)?

Ans:- A Column is defined as the vertical alignment of data and information stored for that particular column.

Q11). What is a row?

Ans:- A row is a set of tuples or records, or it could be taken as the horizontal arrangement of the data.

Q12). How can you define the ERD (Entity Relationship Diagram)?

Ans:- ER is a logical representation of entities and defines the relationship among entities. Entities are given inboxes, and the relationships are given by arrows.

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Q13). What do you understand by the primary key constraint in a database?

Ans:- The primary key constraint is set on a column to avoid null values or duplicate values. In simple words, a column containing unique items can be defined as the primary key constraint. It could be the bank number, security number, or more.

Q14). What do you understand by the composite primary key constraint?

Ans:- When more than a single column can be defined as the primary key constraint, it becomes composite.

Q15). What do you know about foreign key constraints?

Ans:- The Primary key can be defined for the parent table, and the foreign key is set for the child table. The foreign key constraint always refers to the primary key constraint in the main table. 

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Advanced-Data Modeling Interview Questions

Q16). Tell us something about the surrogate key.

Ans:- When a numerical attribute is enforced on a primary key in a table, it is called the surrogate key. This could be defined as a substitute for natural keys. Instead of generating primary or foreign keys, surrogate keys are generated by the database, and they are further helpful in designing the SQL queries.

Q17). Why is a composite word added before any key constraint?

Ans:- When the same constraint is enforced on multiple columns, the composite word is added before that particular key constraint.

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Q18). Name a few popular relationships within a data model.

Ans:- These are identifying, non-identifying, and self-recursive relationships in a data model.

Q19). What do you mean by identifying relationships in a data model?

Ans:- As you know, the parent and child table is connected with a thin line. When the referenced column in a child table is a part of the primary key in the parent table, then those relationships are drawn by a thick line and named as the identifying relationships in a data model.

Q20). Is there exist any non-identifying relationship too?

Ans:- In most cases, a parent table and the child table are both connected with a thin line. When the referenced column in a child table is not a part of the primary key in the parent table, then those relationships are drawn by a dotted line, and it is named the non-identifying relationships in a data model.

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Q21). How will you define cardinality in a data model?

Ans:- Cardinalities are used to define relationships; they could be one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many, etc. The higher the cardinality value, the more unique values within a column.

Q22). What do you mean by self-recursive relationships?

Ans:- This is a standalone column in the table connected to the same table's primary key and is named the self-recursive relationship here.

Q23). Give a quick definition of the enterprise data model.

Ans:- Here, all-important entities are defined as related to an enterprise. You should first understand the essential data elements and their possible relationship. This relationship is defined as enterprise data modeling. To understand this model in the best areas, you should divide the data models into subject areas.

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Q24). How will define the relational data model?

Ans:- The relational data model is the visual representation of data objects within a database. The approach used to create a relational data model is called relational data modeling.

Q25). What is OLTP data modeling?

Ans:- OLTP or Online Transaction Processing is an approach where the data model is specially created for the transactions, and the approach is named the OLTP data modeling.

Q26). What is conceptual data modeling?

Ans:- It will give you detailed information related to the entity, attributes, or relationships between them.

Q27). What is a constraint? Why are constraints essential for a database?

Ans:- This is a rule imposed on the data. Different types of constraints could be unique, null values, foreign keys, composite keys or check constraints, etc.

Q28). Define unique constraints for a database.

Ans:- This constraint is added to avoid duplicate values within a column.

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Q29). Define the check constraint.

Ans:- A check constraint is helpful in defining the range of values within a column.

Q30). What is an index in a database?

Ans:- An Index is composed of a set of columns or a single column that is needed for fast retrieval of data.

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Q31). What is the sequence?

Ans:- A sequence could be defined as the database object needed to create a unique number.

Q32). How will you define database normalization?

Ans:-  To simplify the data based on standard rules, database normalization is needed.

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Q33). What do data modelers use normalization for?

Ans:-  The purpose of normalization is to:

  1. Eliminate unnecessary or redundant data
  2. Reduce data complexity
  3. Ensure relationships between tables in addition to data within a table
  4. Ensure data dependencies so that data is stored logically.

Q34). What is denormalization? What is its purpose?

Ans:- Denormalization is the technique of adding redundant data to an already normalized database. This step improves read performance at the expense of write performance.

Q35). What is Metadata?

Ans:- Metadata describes data about the data. Shows what data is actually stored in the database system.

Q36). What is a data mart?

Ans:- The data mart is a summary version of the data warehouse designed to be used by specific departments, units, or user groups within your organization. B. Marketing, sales, HR, or finance.

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Q37). OLTP System Example?

Ans:- OLTP System Example:

  1. Send SMS
  2. Add Book to Shopping Cart
  3. Online Ticket Booking
  4. Online Banking
  5. Order Entry

Q38). What kind of normalization is it?

Ans:- Types of normalization are

  1. First normal form
  2. Second normal form
  3. Third normal forms
  4. Boyce-Codd fourth
  5. Fifth normal forms.

Q39). What is Forward Data Engineering?

Ans:- Forward engineering is a technical term used to automatically transform a logical model into a physical working device.

Q40). What is a PDAP?

Ans:- A data cube that stores data as aggregates. It helps users to analyze data quickly. PDAP data is stored in a way that facilitates reporting.

Tip: Gain a comprehensive knowledge of the different types of SQL Joins and expand your SQL domain knowledge. 

Q41). What is snowflake Schema Database Design Description?

Ans:-  A snowflake schema is an arrangement of dimension and fact tables. Both tables are typically further divided into separate dimension tables.

Q42). What Is a Sequence Clustering Algorithm?

Ans:-  A sequence clustering algorithm collects a set of data containing paths and events that are similar or related to each other.

Q43). What are discrete and continuous data?

Ans:-  Discrete data is finite or defined data. B. Gender, phone number. Continuous data is data that changes continuously and regularly, for example, Age.

Q44). What are Time Series Algorithms?

Ans:-  Time Series Algorithms are methods of predicting continuous values ​​of data in a table. For example, employee performance can predict benefits and impact.

Q45). What is Business Intelligence?

Ans:-  BI (Business Intelligence) is the set of processes, architecture, and technologies that transform raw data into meaningful information that drives meaningful business action. A suite of software and services for transforming data into actionable information and knowledge.

Q46). What is data warehousing?

Ans:- Data warehousing is the process of collecting and managing data from a variety of sources. It provides meaningful insights into the enterprise. Data warehousing is typically used to connect and analyze data from disparate sources. It is the core of a BI system designed for data analysis and reporting.

Tip: The aggregate functions for SQL are built-in function that performs a calculation on a group of values. Check out our blog to learn how to use different aggregate functions for SQL.

Q47). What is the junk dimension?

Ans:- A junk dimension combines two or more related cardinalities into a single dimension. These are typically boolean or flag values.

Q48). Describes the frequency of data collection.

Ans:- The frequency of data collection is the frequency of data collection. It also goes through different stages. 

These phases are- 

  1. extraction from various sources, 
  2. transformation, 
  3.  cleaning, and
  4.  preservation.

Q49). What is database cardinality?

Ans:- Cardinality is a numeric attribute of the relationship between two entities or an entity set.

Q50). What are the different types of cardinal relationships?

Ans:- The essential fundamental relationships of the different types are

  1. One-to-one relationship
  2. One-to-many relationship
  3. Many-to-one relationship
  4. Many-to-many relationship

Q51). What is granularity?

Ans:- Granularity represents the level of information stored in a database table. To make it high or low, you can use a table that contains a transaction-level table and a fact table. Particle size is also a measure of the smallest dataset that each component/task/application can handle individually.

Tip: Are you heading on to your next SQL Interview? Check out our RDBMS Interview Questions and Answers list to help you ace your next job interview.

Q52). What does the data sparcity?

Ans:- Data sparseness refers to the number of empty cells in the database. It represents the amount of data available in a particular dimension of the data model. Insufficient information consumes a lot of space to store the aggregate.

Q53). What is hashing?

Ans:- Hashes are helpful for searching index values ​​to get the data you need. It is used to calculate the direct location of the data using the index.

Q54). What is OLAP?

Ans:- OLAP stands for On-Line Analytical Processing and is designed to help managers, executives, and analysts gain insights faster, more confidently, more consistently, and more interactively. It is a type of technology that makes OLAP used in intelligent solutions, including planning, budgeting, analysis, forecasting, simulation models, and more. OLAP helps clients consider multiple dimensions and perform analysis to provide insights that help them make better decisions.

Tip: If you are preparing for an interview in the SSAS environment, read our blog on Top 75 SSAS Interview Questions and Answers.

Q55). What is a recursive relationship? 

Ans:- A recursive relationship occurs when there is a relationship between the entity and itself. These relationships are complex and require a more sophisticated approach to mapping data to schemas. Consider the case where a doctor is flagged as a healthcare provider in a healthcare database. Now, when a doctor gets sick, he has to see another doctor as a patient, leading to a recursive relationship. To do this, add a foreign key to the health center number on each patient record. It should be noted that such entity-related recursion has an exit path.

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What’s Next?

We hope these Data Modeler interview questions have given you a glimpse of what kind of questions can be asked in a Data Modeling interview and what a Data Modeler does. So, if you’re planning to accelerate your data modeler career, sign up JanBask Training’s Online SQL Training Program, which will boast a half dozen courses, including in-demand skills and tools and real-life projects. 

So, check out JanBask Training’s resources, improve your data modeling experience and skills right away, and give your new data modeling career a great start! All the Best!


    Abhijeet Padhy

    Abhijeet Padhy is a content marketing professional at JanBask Training, an inbound web development and training platform that helps companies attract visitors, convert leads, and close customers. He has been honored with numerous accreditations for technical & creative writing. Also, popularly known as “Abhikavi” in the creative arena, his articles emphasize the balance between informative needs and SEO skills, but never at the expense of entertaining reading.


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