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Top 45 Pig Interview Questions and Answers for 2023 and Beyond


More and more businesses are looking for experts with experience in Pig programming as Pig gains popularity in big data processing. It's critical to be familiar with the most typical questions if you're getting ready for a Pig interview. To assist you in preparing for your upcoming interview, we've prepared a list of the top 45 Pig interview questions and responses in this article. This list will be useful for brushing up on your skills and getting ready for your Pig interview, whether you're a novice or an experienced Pig programmer. Consider enrolling in a Big Data Hadoop training that will assist you in cracking your interview and landing your dream job as an Apache.

Key Factors to Know about Apache Pig

Before we move to the Apache Pig interview questions and answers, there are some key concepts you should know about Apache Pig:

  • Pig is a high-level scripting language. The Pig is used with Apache Hadoop. Pig helps the developers to write complex data transformations without having knowledge in Java.
  • The Developers familiar with scripting languages and SQL find Pig's simple SQL-like scripting language very appealing. Pig's SQL-like scripting language is known as Pig Latin. Pig Storage is the default load function in Pig. 
  • Whenever the load data has to be used from a file system into the pig, pig storage comes into the picture. In this scenario, one can also specify how the fields in the record are separated along with the schema and the type of data. 
  • Apache Pig is a platform used to analyze large datasets that are represented as data flows.
  • Apache Pig is designed such that it reduces the complexities of writing a MapReduce task using Java programming.
  • Performing data manipulation operations using Apache Pig becomes very easy in Hadoop.
  • Pig Latin language and the Pig Run-time Environment are the main components of Apache Pig, using which Pig Latin programs are executed.
  • Apache Pig follows ETL (Extract Transform Load) process.
  • Apache Pig in case of unstructured data can handle inconsistent schema.
  • Apache Pig handles all kinds of data and performs automatic optimization ie, automatically optimizes the tasks before execution.
  • User Defined Functions (UDF) can be written in different languages like Java, Ruby, Python, etc. and get them embedded in Pig script.
  • Pig allows programmers to write custom functions.
  • Various built-in operators like join

Apache Pig interview questions and answers Freshers

Q1). What is Apache Pig?

Apache Pig is an Apache Software Foundation project, which is used for high-level language analyzing large data sets that consists of expressing data analysis programs. For executing data flows in parallel on Hadoop, Pig serves as an engine.

Q2). Name the relational operations in pig Latin?

Rational operations are

  • for each
  • order by
  • filters
  • group
  • distinct
  • join
  • Limit

This is how you should answer the Pig questions asked during the interview.

Q3). What is Pig Latin?

Pig Latin is the Scripting Language for the data flow that defines large data sets. A Pig Latin program consists of a series of operations, which is then applied to the input data in order to get the required output.

Q4). What is Pig Engine?

Pig Engine is the platform to execute the Pig Latin programs. Pig engine converts Pig Latin operators into a series of MapReduce job. This is one of the toughest Pig questions that’s why, many candidates don't pay attention to it.

Q5). Define the modes of Pig Execution?

Pig execution can be done in two modes.

  • Local Mode: Local execution in a single JVM, all files are installed and run using local host and file system.
  • MapReduce Mode: Distributed execution on a Hadoop cluster, it is the default mode.

Here is a quick go-through of the Hadoop Big Data tutorial for beginners to understand the concept better. 

Q6). Define Pig Latin Features?

  • Pig Latin script is made up of a series of operations, or transformations, that are applied to the input data in order to fetch output.
  • Programs can be executed either in Interactive mode through Grunt shell or in Batch mode via Pig Latin Scripts.
  • Includes operators for a lot of the traditional data operations.
  • User Defined Functions (UDF)
  • Debugging Environment

Q7). What are the advantages of using Pig over MapReduce?

In MapReduce, The development cycle is very long. Writing mappers and reducers, compilingand packaging the code, submitting jobs, and retrieving the results is a time consuming process. Performing Dataset joins is very difficultLow level and rigid, and leads to a great deal of custom user code that is hard to maintain and reuse is complex.

In Pig, Compiling or packaging of code need not be done in Pig. Internally the Pig operators will be converted into the map or reduce the tasks.All of the standard data-processing operations are provided by Pig Latin, high-level abstraction for processing large data sets is possible.

Q8). Differentiate between Pig Latin and Hive QL?Q9). What are the common features in Pig and Hive?

  • Provides a high-level abstraction on top of MapReduce.
  • Converts command internally into MapReduce jobs.
  • Does not support low-latency queries.
  • Does not support OLAP or OLTP.

Q9). What are the common features in Pig and Hive?

  • Provides a high-level abstraction on top of MapReduce.
  • Converts command internally into MapReduce jobs.
  • Does not support low-latency queries.
  • Does not support OLAP or OLTP

Q10). Differentiate between logical and physical plans?

When a Pig Latin Script is converted into MapReduce jobs, Pig passes through some steps. After performing the basic parsing and semantic checking, Pig produces a logical plan. The logical operators are described by the logical plan that is executed by Pig during execution. After this, Pig produces a physical plan. The physical operators that are needed to execute the script are described by the physical plan.

Apache Pig interview questions and answers for Experienced

Q11). What is the role of MapReduce in Pig programming?

Pig is a high-level platform which makes executing many Hadoop data analysis issues simpler.  A program written in Pig Latin resembles the query written in SQL, where an execution engine is utilized to execute the query. Pig engine is capable of converting the program into MapReduce jobs, where, MapReduce acts as the execution engine.

Q12). How many ways can we run Pig programs?name them

There are three ways in which Pig programs or commands can be executed

  1. Script – Batch Method
  2. Grunt Shell – Interactive Method
  3. Embedded mode

Q13). Explain Grunt in Pig and explain its features?

The Grunt acts as an Interactive Shell Pig. The major features are of Grunt are:

  • The ctrl-e key combination can be used in order to move the cursor to the end of the line.
  • Using up or down cursor keys, the lines in the history buffer can be recalled, as a Grunt remembers command history.
  • The Auto-completion mechanism is supported by Grunt, which when pressed on the Tab key will try to complete Pig Latin keywords and functions

Q14). Explain bag?

A bag is one of the data models present in Pig. The bag is an un-ordered collection of tuples with possible duplicates used to store collections while grouping. The size of bag equals the size of the local disk, this means that the size of the bag is limited. When the bag is full, then Pig will spill this bag into the local disk and keep only some parts of the bag in memory. There is no necessity that the complete bag should fit into memory. We represent bagswith "{}".

Q15). What are the categories of Pig and which one is most common? What are the scalar data types in pig?

Most common use case for pig is data pipeline.

The scalar data types are:

  • Int: 4bytes
  • Float: 4bytes
  • Double: 8bytes
  • Long: 8 bytes
  • the char: Array
  • byte: Array

During the Interview, these are the guidelines or ways in which you can answer similar pig questions. Learn more about SCala with this comprehensive Scala tutorial

Q16). Why should we use ‘group' keyword in pig scripts?

The group statement collects together records with the same key.In SQL the group by clause creates a group that must feed directly into one or more aggregate functions. No direct connection between group and aggregate functions is present in Pig Latin.

Q17). Why should we use ‘orderby' and ‘distinct' keyword in pig scripts?

Sorting of data, producing a total order of the output data is done by the order statement. The syntax of order is similar to group ie by using the key or set of keys. The distinct statement removes The duplicate records is done by the distinct statement. It works only on entire records, not on individual fields.

Q18). Is it possible to join multiple fields in pig scripts?

Yes, it is possible to join multiple fields in pig scripts. Joining the select records from one input and to another input is done by indicating keys for each input. When the keys become equal, the two rows are successfully joined. One of the most challenging Pig questions is this one since so many candidates don't pay attention to it.

Q19). Is it possible to display a limited no of results?

Yes, it is possible to display a limited no of results. The limit allows seeing only a limited number of results when needed.

Q20). Does PigLatin have robust typing? If so, how did you arrive at your conclusion?

The user must explicitly define the type of every variable in a strongly typed language. When you describe the data schema in Apache Pig, it anticipates that the data will arrive in the same manner. However, the script will change to the real data types at runtime if the schema is unknown. So it may be claimed that PigLatin is firmly typed in the majority of circumstances, but gently typed in a small number of cases, i.e., it keeps working with data that does not meet its expectations.

Q21). Determine the difference between COGROUP and GROUP operators.

The GROUP and COGROUP operators can both work with one or more relations and are functionally equivalent. The COGROUP operator can be used to group the data in two or more relations, whereas the GROUP operator is typically used to group the data in a single relation for better readability. COGROUP gathers the tables based on a column and then joins them on the grouped columns, which is more like a mix of GROUP and JOIN. Up to 127 relations can be Cogrouped at one time.

Q22). What distinguishes Apache Pig's COUNT STAR and COUNT functions?

When counting the number of elements in a bag, the COUNT function does not include the NULL value, whereas the COUNT STAR (0 method does  values while counting. Make sure to prepare for these types of Pig questions to crack your interview at the first attempt.

Q23). What does a co-group in Pig do?

The Co-group only groups one specific data set when joining the data collection. The items are grouped according to their shared field, and after that, a collection of records containing two distinct bags is returned. The records of the first data set with the common data set are in the first bag, and the records of the second data set with the same data set are in the second bag.

Q24). What User Defined Function (UDF) does the keyword "FUNCTIONAL" represent?

No, the user-defined function "FUNCTIONAL" is not a keyword (UDF). Some functions must be overridden while using UDF. Obviously, you must complete your work using only these features. However, the keyword "FUNCTIONAL" has an inherent function, i.e. a pre-defined function, therefore it does not work as a UDF.

Q25). What distinguishes the commands store and dump?

After processing, the data appears on the terminal and is dumped, but it is not saved. While the output is executed in a folder and the store is stored in the local file system or HDFS. Hadoop developers most frequently used the'store' command to store data in the HDFS in a protected environment.

Q26). How can you run Pig scripts on a cluster that is Kerberos secured?

Because of this, running a pig script on a Hadoop cluster that is Kerberos secured can only go for as long as these Kerberos tickets are still valid. This could become a problem when performing really complicated analyses because the operation might need to continue for longer than these ticket times allow. This is how you should answer the Pig questions asked during the interview.

Q27). What Does Pig Flatten Do?

The Flatten modifier in Pig can be used to eliminate the level of nesting from data that is sometimes contained in a tuple or a bag. Flatten tuples and un-nested bags. Un-nesting bags is a little more difficult because it necessitates the creation of new tuples, whereas the Flatten operator for tuples will substitute the fields of a tuple in place of a tuple. This is how you should answer the Pig questions asked during the interview.

Q28). What distinguishes logical planning from physical plans?

When a Pig Latin Script is transformed into MapReduce jobs, Pig goes through a few phases. It creates a logical plan after doing the fundamental parsing and semantic testing. The logical plan outlines the logical operations that Pig must carry out while being executed. Pig then creates a physical plan. The physical plan outlines the actual physical operators required to carry out the script.

Q29). Is the word "DEFINE" used as the name of a function?

The term "DEFINE" functions like the name of a function. Following registration, we must define it. Whatever Java programme logic you have created, we have both an exported jar and a jar that has been registered with us. The function in the exported jar will now be examined by the compiler. It searches our jar if the function isn't found in the library.

Q30). Why is MapReduce required while using Pig programming?

Let's put it this way: Pig is a high-level framework that streamlines the execution of numerous Hadoop data analytic tasks. And for this platform, we use Pig Latin. A SQL query needs an execution engine to be executed, just like a programme written in Pig Latin does. As a result, when we built a programme in Pig Latin, the pig compiler transformed it into MapReduce jobs. MapReduce serves as an execution engine as a result.

If you are looking for a career alternative apart from the Apache, you can think of being a SQL developer. Here is a guide on Microsoft SQL server developer.  

Q31). What does a co-group in Pig do?

In essence, it connects the data set by just grouping one specific data set. Additionally, it organizes the elements according to their shared field before returning a set of records that comprise two distinct bags. Records from the first data set with the common data set are contained in one bag, and records from the second data set with the common data set are contained in another bag.

Q32). What are your knowledge of Apache Pig's case sensitivity?

Whether Apache Pig is case sensitive or case insensitive is unclear. The function COUNT is not the same as the function count, and X=load "foo" is not the same as X=load "foo," for example, since user-defined functions, relations, and field names in pig are case-sensitive. As an example, the keyword LOAD is the same as the keyword load in Apache Pig.

Q33). What in Pig is UDF?

Although the pig has many built-in functions, there are times when we need to write complicated business logic that may not be possible to accomplish using primitive functions. As a result, Pig offers support for authoring User Defined Functions (UDFs) as a means of defining customised processing.

Q34). What different Apache Pig execution modes are there?

There are two operating modes for Apache Pig: the "Hadoop MapReduce (Java) Command Mode" and the "Pig (Local Mode) Command Mode." MapReduce requires connection to the Hadoop cluster, whereas Local Mode simply needs access to a single workstation, where all files are installed and run on a local host.

Q35). What distinguishes the commands store and dumps?

After processing, the data is shown on the terminal using the Dump Command, but it is not saved. Whereas output is executed in a folder and storage is in the local file system or HDFS. Most frequently, Hadoop developers used the'store' command to store data in the HDFS in a secure environment.

Q36). Describe the tuple.

A field is a piece of data, and a tuple is an ordered set of fields. Make sure to prepare for these types of Pig questions to crack your interview at the first attempt.

Q37). What benefits does pig language offer?

Pig is simple to understand, which reduces the need to write intricate MapReduce routines to some extent. Pig operates in a step-by-step fashion. As a result, it is simple to write and, even better, simple to read.One of the most challenging Pig questions is this one since so many candidates don't pay attention to it.

Q38). What is bag?

One of the data models in Pig is a bag. It is a collection of tuples that is not ordered and may contain duplicates. Collections are kept in bags while being grouped. The size of the bag is constrained because it is equal to the size of the local disc. Make sure to prepare for these types of Pig questions to crack your interview at the first attempt.

Q39). Why does PigStorage work?

A) PigStorage is the function that it uses by default to load and save data. PigStorage supports compressed and uncompressed versions of structured text files in the human-readable UTF-8 encoding. With the help of this function, any Pig data types—both simple and complex—can be read and written. A file, directory, or glob of data can be used as the load's input.

PigStorage([field delimiter], ['options']) is the syntax.

Q40). What purpose does BinStorage serve?

A) Pig loads and stores the temporary data produced by several MapReduce tasks using BinStorage.

Data that is stored on disc in a machine-readable format is what BinStorage uses. Compression is not supported by BinStorage. 

Multiple input sources (files, directories, and globs) are supported by BinStorage.

Q41). What constitutes the HBase's core elements?

A region, region server, HBase Master, ZooKeeper, and catalogue tables are the essential parts of HBase. These parts work together to store and track the regions in the system, monitor the region, monitor the region server, and coordinate with the HBase master component. One of the most challenging Pig questions is this one since so many candidates don't pay attention to it.

Q42). What distinguishes Pig from MapReduce?

In a map-reduce system, group-by operations are carried out on the reducer side, and projection can be used in the map phase.

Pig Latin also has typical operations like orderby, filters, group by, etc. that are similar to mapreduce.

We can examine the pig script to understand the data flows and to detect errors early.

Pig Latin for MapReduce is substantially less expensive to write and maintain than Java code.

Q43). Describe the Hive UDF function.

A) All Hive UDFs, including UDF, GenericUDF, UDAF, GenericUDAF, and GenericUDTF, are invoked by Pig. You must define the Hive UDF in Pig using HiveUDF (handles UDF and GenericUDF), HiveUDAF (handles UDAF and GenericUDAF), and HiveUDTF (handles GenericUDTF).

The syntax is the same for HiveUDF, HiveUDAF, and HiveUDTF.

HiveUDF(name[, fixed parameters])

This is how you should answer the Pig questions asked during the interview.

Q44).Describe the AvroStorage function.

AvroStorage uses Avro files to store and load data. Frequently, you may use AvroStorage to load and save data without having much knowledge of the Avros serialization standard. In an effort to translate a pig schema and pig data into avro data or avro data into pig data automatically, AvroStorage will try.

AvroStorage("schema|record name," "options")

Q45). What does TOTUPLE function do?

A) To create a tuple out of one or more expressions, use the TOTUPLE function.

TOTUPLE(expression [, expression...]) is the syntax. Make sure to prepare for these types of Pig questions to crack your interview at the first attempt.


"Hadoop's Apache Pig is a useful tool for processing and analyzing big datasets. You may impress your potential employer and show off your Pig programming talents by practicing for your interview with our top 45 Pig interview questions and answers. You may approach your Pig interview with ease and land the job you've been looking for armed with the information and assurance you've received from this list  However, feel free to use the comment option to ask any questions if you have any. Additionally, if you have already taken part in a Pig interview, we would appreciate it if you would add your Apache Pig interview questions in the comments section. Don’t wait any more. Begin your big data journey today and take the first step towards a fulfilling and rewarding career in the field, join the Big data Hadoop certification training for better understanding of the platform. 

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