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Difference between Java and C# (Java vs. C# Programming Language)

Programming has become part of our lives and in many forms, we are using programmers. It is not only being used in web, mobile, or desktop application development, instead, users are using through a number of gadgets. In this era, smart devices that are part of our day to day life activities are using programming.

A number of programming languages are present today that are more or less similar or different to each other, like in case of the object-oriented model, there are many languages that are based on OOPS model. One cannot learn and practice all languages in one go.

As far as the choice of language is concerned then programmers like to choose such a language that can provide all features. Such languages are Java and C# and, in this article, we are going to compare these two most used and featured languages of today’s programming world. If you are the one who is not sure about language consideration and want to choose one among Java and C# then read this article and take your decision accordingly.

A Quick Introduction to Java and C#

Java and C# languages are two separate languages that are evolved as improved C++. These languages provided a competitive environment to other languages and have some similarities and differences as well. Java language was evolved long before C# and its initial name was Oak that was developed by Sun Microsystem in 1990.

First beta version of Java was released in 1995. Creation of C# was done in 2000, while the first version of the .NET framework that supports C# appeared in 2002. Java was developed as the Objective C and C languages. C# language is closer to Java rather than C++.

From the developer’s point of view, Java and C# both are quite identical as both are object-oriented and strongly typed languages. Here, many of the features of Java and C# are borrowed from C++ but at the same time, both of these languages are considered quite easier to learn as compared to C and C++.

Comparison of Java and C# languages

By the below-listed properties or features, Java and C# can be compared. They are quite different and similar to each other and here in this article we will see the difference on the basis of below-listed points:

  • Syntactic Base
  • Object Tools
  • Data Types
  • Imperative Features
  • Dynamic Data handling

The above-listed features or points will let you know exact difference or similarities between both the languages. Let us see discuss them in the next section.

C# vs Java - Syntactic Base

Java and C# both use C as the syntactic base or in other words both the languages use the syntax of C language, but still there are some syntactic differences between both the languages and they are listed below:

Name of the Syntax
Import Static

A separate import of all or some of the static class variables or methods is enabled and for this, their names can be used for this there is no need to import the module.

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By using static System Math this language has been presented since its version C# 6.0

Switch Operator

The Switch Operator can refer either to enumerated or integral type. Since the evolution of Java 7, Switch operator of Java can also use string literals and therefore the difference between C# and Java has been eliminated.

C# supports both string and constant types. Unlike Java, you cannot directly transit to the next “case” block. For this, you can use Goto operator.

Goto Operator

Java never used Goto operator, instead, Java developers use class variables with “final” modifier. As the way and effect of use are the same for both.

In C#, there is a separate concept of const keyword and constant types

Floating Point Calculation Accuracy

In Java, there is a strict FP structure. It guarantees the same floating point results for all operations for any platform.

In C#, there is no restriction of strict calculation and it can be done easily

Check Deactivation

Here, in Java, all dynamic verifications are turned off or turned on at the package level

Checked and unchecked constructions of C# allow to locally check arithmetic overflow.


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C# vs Java - Object Tools

Here, data and code can only be described only in the classes. So as per below-listed features the differences are being identified and listed:

Encapsulation Java

Encapsulation C#

The protected modifier is being used in the description, that permits the access from all classes except only its descendent classes. Here all the classes must be present in the same package.

In C# “protected” keyword retains its original purpose and the objects remain visible in the assembly range only and here a separate internal modifier is being introduced for this purpose. User or developer can also combine internal and protected modifiers to access descendent classes.

The Concept of Inner Classes Java

The Concept of Inner Classes C#

In Java, inner classes can access non-static elements of their parent class. The local class of any parent class can access static and non-static elements of their parent class. They can have read access to their parent class objects.

In C#, you can find lambda and circuits. This approach resembles C++ and the members of inner classes have access to the static elements of outer class members. In C#, local inner classes are not supported instead the members of the outer class can be specified.

C# vs Java - Data Types

Primitive data types are supported by both Java and C# languages and they also provide boxing and unboxing of objects. In C#, primitive types are treated as objects. On the other hand, Java does not support unsigned integers.

In C# enumerated types are derived from primitive types. In case of Java enumerated types are represented as classes, while values of the enumerated types are represented as objects.

C# vs Java - Imperative Features

Both C# and Java have some of the essential features that are defined below:

C# Features

Java Features

  • Lambda Functions
  • Delegates
  • Operator Overloading
  • Yield support in iterations
  • Extension Methods
  • Support for strict static types
  • A simplified version of C++
  • Cross-platform support
  • Cost friendly
  • Complete backward compatibility
  • Vast library

  In this way, both of the languages have a number of important or imperative features due to which they are liked by the programmers.

C# vs Java - Dynamic Data handling

Both of the languages Java and C# works in a similar way and have same model and way of working with dynamic data: The execution environment tracks the presence of links of the objects while garbage collectors usually clear the memory periodically. In both of the languages, weak and strong references to the objects and supports finalizer methods.

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As the objects can be asked at any time to free the memory so it cannot be predicted that when the object will release it? Due to this additional methods are created to clean the memory and are called explicitly.

In C#, auto cleaning is performed for the objects, while in Java <<try-with-resources>> structure is being used that is quite autonomous to the one used in C#. In Java listeners are added to receive the messages when garbage collection is to be performed, due to this Weak Hash Map has been improved a lot. Both languages support generic programming methods.

C# vs Java - Which one to Choose?

As we have discussed so far that we can choose anyone Java or C# as per your convenience. Depending on the advantages, features, and structure one can choose any of these languages, here the choice of any language also depends on the particular programming, his experience or style.

Depending on the functionality and feature of the language you can choose the appropriate language and use it as per their performance. One day they will be replaced by some universal or advanced features.

C# Features that are absent in Java

Java Features that are absent in C#

  • Switch statements can be operated on strings in Java
  • C3 can alias namespace
  • Anonymous methods in C# can provide closure functionalities
  • COM can be integrated into C#
  • Call be Reference and reference types can be provided by C#
  • Checked Exceptions are supported by Java to handle better error trapping and handling them properly.
  • Strictfp keyword of Java guarantees the same floating-point result across all platforms.

Related Topic 

Final Words:

Depending on the requirement and use you can choose any language among Java or C# and for that, you can check the features and choose the appropriate one. The languages that are being used these days are much rich in features and user can use anyone that has a number of features.

Java is one of the most popular and feature-rich programming languages that are known for its platform compatibility and robustness, while C# is also an object-oriented language that is mostly used by the.Net programmers.

C# language is popular as it provides almost similar features to C programming language. Java is being used by most of the programmers to develop web or desktop based applications.

Read: What is Microsoft .Net Framework? Complete Architecture Tutorial Guide

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